Humanistic phenomenological approaches to personality
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Humanistic/Phenomenological Approaches to Personality. Phenomenal Field – the unique way that a person perceives the world; subjective experiences Humanistic – recognizes inherent human potential and tendency toward growth “third force” (behind psychanalysis & behaviorism).

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Humanistic phenomenological approaches to personality
Humanistic/Phenomenological Approaches to Personality

Phenomenal Field – the unique way that a person perceives the world; subjective experiences

Humanistic – recognizes inherent human potential and tendency toward growth

“third force” (behind psychanalysis & behaviorism)


Carl rogers 1902 1987
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)

  • Human behavior is rational

  • “man’s nature is essentially positive”

  • Free will

  • Importance of the self


Structure of personality
Structure of Personality

  • Self

    • Primarily conscious

    • Develops gradually

    • Ideal self/actual self


Process of personality
Process of personality

Actualization

  • Self-actualization

    • Fully functioning individual

    • Way of functioning rather than a type of person

  • Need for positive regard

    • need for acceptance, love, and approval from others

    • Unconditional positive regard

    • Conditions of worth

    • Positive self-regard

  • Incongruence/congruence (self-consistency)

    • Causes anxiety


In class assignment
In-class assignment

Explain the relationship between conditional positive regard and conditions of worth in your own words. Explain why Rogers often considered conditions of worth to be unhealthy.


Eric fromm love
Eric Fromm: Love

  • Allows us to find meaning in life

  • Allow us to overcome isolation

  • Need a fully developed personality

    We often feel alienated. Try to have “have fun” to fill void.

    Need to re-connect with people, help others, be loving.


Growth development
Growth & Development

  • Major developmental concern

  • Emphasis on parent-child relationships

  • Reflected appraisal

  • Personality can change (through psychotherapy or loving relationships)


Coopersmith 1967
Coopersmith (1967)

Looked at origins of self-esteem

Three major factors:

  • Degree of acceptance

  • Permissiveness and punishment

  • Rights/respect for children


Dweck leggett 1988 dweck 1991 1999
Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Dweck, 1991, 1999

  • Entity (fixed) vs. incremental (malleable) traits

  • Performance goals vs. learning goals

  • Child entity theorists: self-worth

  • Child incremental theorists: self-worth


Assessment
Assessment

  • How to measure the self-concept??

  • Q-sort technnique

    • Large set of items

    • “I am intelligent”

    • “I often feel guilty”

    • “I am an impulsive person”

  • Sort cards into piles of most like me and least like me and other gradations

  • Sort further

  • Can compare ideal self to actual self


Assessment1
Assessment

Implici

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/t Association Test


Assessment2
Assessment

Implicit Association Test

Implicit Association Test Link

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/


Psychopathology and behavior change
Psychopathology and Behavior Change

  • Absence of congruity

  • Focus on conditions of worth

  • Person centered therapy

    • Crucial condition: unconditional positive regard

    • Client-centered

    • Therapist must be

      • Empathic

      • Congruent

      • Provide unconditional positive regard

    • Therapist is nondirective and nonevaluative


Person centered therapy cont
Person-centered therapy cont’

Techniques:

  • clarification of feelings

  • Restatement of content


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