Humanistic phenomenological approaches to personality
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Humanistic/Phenomenological Approaches to Personality. Phenomenal Field – the unique way that a person perceives the world; subjective experiences Humanistic – recognizes inherent human potential and tendency toward growth “third force” (behind psychanalysis & behaviorism).

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Humanistic/Phenomenological Approaches to Personality

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Humanistic/Phenomenological Approaches to Personality

Phenomenal Field – the unique way that a person perceives the world; subjective experiences

Humanistic – recognizes inherent human potential and tendency toward growth

“third force” (behind psychanalysis & behaviorism)


Carl Rogers (1902-1987)

  • Human behavior is rational

  • “man’s nature is essentially positive”

  • Free will

  • Importance of the self


Structure of Personality

  • Self

    • Primarily conscious

    • Develops gradually

    • Ideal self/actual self


Process of personality

Actualization

  • Self-actualization

    • Fully functioning individual

    • Way of functioning rather than a type of person

  • Need for positive regard

    • need for acceptance, love, and approval from others

    • Unconditional positive regard

    • Conditions of worth

    • Positive self-regard

  • Incongruence/congruence (self-consistency)

    • Causes anxiety


In-class assignment

Explain the relationship between conditional positive regard and conditions of worth in your own words. Explain why Rogers often considered conditions of worth to be unhealthy.


Eric Fromm: Love

  • Allows us to find meaning in life

  • Allow us to overcome isolation

  • Need a fully developed personality

    We often feel alienated. Try to have “have fun” to fill void.

    Need to re-connect with people, help others, be loving.


Growth & Development

  • Major developmental concern

  • Emphasis on parent-child relationships

  • Reflected appraisal

  • Personality can change (through psychotherapy or loving relationships)


Coopersmith (1967)

Looked at origins of self-esteem

Three major factors:

  • Degree of acceptance

  • Permissiveness and punishment

  • Rights/respect for children


Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Dweck, 1991, 1999

  • Entity (fixed) vs. incremental (malleable) traits

  • Performance goals vs. learning goals

  • Child entity theorists: self-worth

  • Child incremental theorists: self-worth


Assessment

  • How to measure the self-concept??

  • Q-sort technnique

    • Large set of items

    • “I am intelligent”

    • “I often feel guilty”

    • “I am an impulsive person”

  • Sort cards into piles of most like me and least like me and other gradations

  • Sort further

  • Can compare ideal self to actual self


Assessment

Implici

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/t Association Test


Assessment

Implicit Association Test

Implicit Association Test Link

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/


Psychopathology and Behavior Change

  • Absence of congruity

  • Focus on conditions of worth

  • Person centered therapy

    • Crucial condition: unconditional positive regard

    • Client-centered

    • Therapist must be

      • Empathic

      • Congruent

      • Provide unconditional positive regard

    • Therapist is nondirective and nonevaluative


Person-centered therapy cont’

Techniques:

  • clarification of feelings

  • Restatement of content


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