Discomforts, Lifestyle & Oral Health 2011. Discomforts Nausea and vomiting Heartburn Lifestyle concerns with nutritional implications: alcohol caffeine smoking Illicit drugs Non-nutritive sweeteners physical activity oral health.
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“Given the high prevalence of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, health professionals need to provide clear guidance to women, based on systematically reviewed evidence. There is a lack of high-quality evidence to support that advice. The difficulties in interpreting the results of the studies included in this review highlight the need for specific, consistent and clearly justified outcomes and approaches to measurement in research studies.”
*Reglan, Compazine , Phenergan , Tebamide, Zofran
Staged approach: Position Statement on the Use of Gastrointestinal Medication in Pregnancy
Lifestyle modification: Smaller meals, no late night eating, elevate head of bed, avoiding foods/mediations causing heartburn
Discuss risk/benefits of drug TX (RCTs not done)The management of heartburn in pregnancy (Richter, 2005. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics)
Percentage of women aged 18--44 years who reported any alcohol use or binge drinking, by pregnancy status --- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys, United States
MMWR: May 22, 2009 / 58(19);529-532
Other organ systems often involved. Some with nutritional implications:
Changes with pregnancy, cont.
“Research has exhibited an association between periodontal disease in pregnant women and adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight, preterm birth, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Because studies have shown conflicting results on the relationship between periodontal disease and birth outcomes, and there is no general consensus on this association, further research is needed to explore and confirm this possible correlation. However, research does universally support the safety of dental treatment during pregnancy and confirms that maintaining good oral health prior Improving Access to Perinatal Oral Health Care: Strategies & Considerations for Health Plans to and during pregnancy remains a key factor in achieving overall health and well-being for women and their infants.”
“Mother-to-child transmission of bacteria is the primary vehicle through which children first acquire dental caries, the disease process that causes cavities. These bacteria are transmitted through saliva that is passed from a caregiver’s mouth to a
child’s. The healthier the mother’s mouth, and the longer the initial transmission of caries-causing bacteria is delayed, the more likely children are to establish and maintain good oral health.”