The Cell. Cell Parts. Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm Protein Production - Nucleus, Nucleolus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi Bodies, Lysosomes Energy- Mitochondrion, Chloroplasts ( Energy- Mitochondrion, Chloroplasts) Miscellaneous - Microtubules, Microfilaments, Plastids.
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It also connects the the endoplasmic reticulum, and the nuclear membrane. In the image below we have colored the membrane to highlight its composition. The yellow represents the phospholipids. The purple represents the membrane proteins
This is a simple representation of a phospholipid. the yellow structure represents the HYDROPHILLIC or water loving section of the phospholipid. The blue tails that come off of the sphere represent the HYDROPHOBIC or water fearing end of the Phospholipid. Below is a structural model of a phospholipid that explains what these terms mean.
The nuclear envelope is a double membrane. Is has 4 phospholipid layers. It is also has large pores through which materials pass back and forth.
The headquarters of the cell. It is a large dark spot in EUKARYOTIC cells. It controls all cell activity. Close up you will see that the nuclear membrane has many pores. The nuclear membrane is continuous with the E.R.
With the outer membrane removed it is much easier to see the contents of the nucleus.
The thick ropy strands are the CHROMATIN. The large solid spot is the NUCLEOLUS. The nucleolus is a knot of chromatin. It manufactures ribosomes.
Within the nucleus are found chromatin and a structure called the nucleolus. Chromatin is DNA in its active form. It consists of DNA looped around histone proteins. The nucleolus is a knot of chromatin. It is the nucleolus that manufactures ribosomes .
The endoplasmic reticulum is a series of double membranes that loop back and forth between the cell membrane and the nucleus. These membranes fill the cytoplasm but you cannot see them because they are very transparent.
The golgi body is responsible for packaging proteins for the cell. Once the proteins are produced by the rough E.R. they pass into the sack- like cisternae that are the main part of the golgi body.
These proteins are then squeezed off into the little blebs which drift off into the cytoplasm.
Lysosomes are called suicide sacks. They are produced by the golgi body. They consist of a single membrane surrounding powerful digestive enzymes. From this screen you can cut the lysosome and move it around.
Vacuoles are large empty appearing areas found
in the cytoplasm. They are usually found in plant cells where they store waste. As a plant cell ages they get larger. In mature cells they occupy most of the cytoplasm.
These are hair like extensions off of the cell membrane. Cilia tend to be small and numerous and flagella tend to be large &few. They beat back and forth rhythmically. In unicellular organisms their job is locomotion. In large multicell organisms their role is to move fluid past the cell. Notice the 9+2 arrangement of the microtubles.
The MITOCHONDRION is the powerhouse of the cell. It is the site of respiration. It has a double membrane. From this view you can see very little >>>>>>>>>>
The outer membrane is cut to get a better look. With the outer membrane removed it is much easier to see the contents of the mitochondrion. The white folded structure is the inner membrane. Most of AEROBIC RESPIRATION occurs along this membrane. Get a really good look by cutting the inner membrane. >>>next slide>>>>>
The inner membranes is ruffled. It has
a very large surface area. These ruffles are
called cristae. Mitochondria have their
own DNA and manufacture some their
own proteins. It is thought that the
mitochondrion evolved from symbiotic
bacteria that took up residence inside
the first eukaryotic cells.
they usually store food molecules. Included in this group are amyloplasts or starch plastids shown here in potato root cell.
Chloroplasts represent one group of plastids called chromoplasts (colored plastids).
The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis. It consists of a double membrane. Cut the outer membrane to get a better look inside.
With the outer membrane removed it is much easier to see the contents of the chloroplast. The stacks of disk-like structures are called the GRANA. The membranes connecting them are the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES.
Dissolve the Remaining
membrane and zoom in
to get a better look.