Intro to nutrition
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INTRO TO NUTRITION. History of USDA’s Food Guidance. Food for Young Children. 1992. 1916. 1940s. 1970s. 2005. 1950s-1960s. Dietary Guidelines 2010 Selected Messages for Consumers. Take action on the Dietary Guidelines by making changes in these three areas… Balancing Calories

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INTRO TO NUTRITION

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Intro to nutrition

INTRO TO NUTRITION


History of usda s food guidance

History of USDA’s Food Guidance

Food for Young Children

1992

1916

1940s

1970s

2005

1950s-1960s


Dietary guidelines 2010 selected messages for consumers

Dietary Guidelines 2010Selected Messages for Consumers

  • Take action on the Dietary Guidelines by making changes in these three areas…

  • Balancing Calories

  • Foods to Increase

  • Foods to Reduce


Balancing calories

Balancing Calories

  • Enjoy your food, but eat less.

  • Avoid oversized portions.


Foods to increase

Foods to Increase

  • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.

  • Make at least half your grains whole grains.

  • Switch to fat-free or low fat (1%) milk.


Foods to reduce

Foods to Reduce

  • Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals—and choose the foods with lower numbers.

  • Drink water instead of sugary drinks.


Food groups

Food Groups

Grains: Make at least half your grains whole.

Vegetables: Vary your veggies

Fruit: Focus on fruits

Dairy: Get your calcium-rich foods.

Protein Foods: Go lean with protein.


Nutrients

Nutrients


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Our major source of energy

  • AKA: Sugars, starches, carbs

  • Found in grains, sugar, fruits, vegetables

  • 70% of our calories should come from carbohydrates


Intro to nutrition

Fat

  • Energy storage

  • AKA: oils and lipids

  • 15-25% of our calories should come from fat


Protein

Protein

  • Repairs and builds muscle

  • Found in meat, beans, grains

  • Complete vs. incomplete


Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and Minerals

  • Vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals). Fat and water soluble.

  • Minerals are inorganic elements(come from the earth), cannot be created in body.

  • Both are needed for growth and development.


Water

Water

  • Water helps the body transport nutrients and flush out waste

  • Body is 55-78% water depending on body size.

  • We need about 8 cups of water daily

    (LOTS more in hot weather or while exercising)


Fiber

Fiber

  • Indigestible plant material

  • Keeps our digestive system moving

  • Helps prevent some types of cancer

  • Only found in WHOLE grains and lentils

  • Most Americans only get 1/5 of what they need.


Metabolism

Metabolism


Metabolism1

Metabolism

  • Our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism, the chemical reactions in the body's cells that convert the fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving to thinking to growing.

  • Metabolism is how many calories your body uses each day

  • AKA “caloric need”

  • AKA “TDEE” (Total Daily Energy Expenditure)


Bmr basal metabolic rate

BMRBasal Metabolic Rate

  • The amount of calories your body needs to keep its internal organs functioning

  • TDEE = BMR + (the energy spent exercising)


Increase your metabolism

Increase Your Metabolism

  • Build muscle!

    • Muscle cells use more energy when “idle” than fat cells do, that way you are burning more calories when you aren’t exercising

  • Exercise more!

    • Do something fun, increase your fitness, and lose weight all at the same time


Obesity

Obesity

Having a BMI of greater than

30 kg/m 2 (Weight in Kilograms / Surface Area in Square Meters)


Body composition

Body Composition

  • What your body is made of

  • For example:

    82 lbsLean body mass (muscle, bone, organs)

    +33 lbsFat (body fat, cell membranes, brain)

    115 lbsTotal Body Weight


Body composition1

Body Composition

  • This is often recorded as a percentage

    82 lbsLean body mass (muscle, bone, organs)

    +33 lbsFat (body fat, cell membranes, brain)

    115 lbsTotal Body Weight

    33/115 = 28% body fat


Body composition2

Body Composition

  • Body Percent Fat is often inaccurate

    • It is difficult to measure

    • Very athletic and very skinny people are even harder to measure

  • Sometimes, you’ll hear about an athlete who says they have 2% body fat, or something like that

    • That is IMPOSSIBLE. It is not good for you health if:

      • Men – body fat gets below 5%

      • Women- body fat gets below 12%


Bmi body mass index

BMIBody Mass Index

  • A number based on your HEIGHT and WEIGHT

    BMI=kg/m2

    Adults are categorized by their BMI

    <20Underweight

    20-24.9Healthy Weight

    25-29.9Overweight

    30+Obese


Bmi body mass index1

BMIBody Mass Index

  • A number based on your HEIGHT and WEIGHT

    BMI=kg/m2

    Adolescents are categorized by their percentile

    <5thUnderweight

    5th—85thHealthy Weight

    85th—95thOverweight

    >95thObese


Bmi body mass index2

BMIBody Mass Index

5’2” and 99 lbs = BMI of 18.1 kg/m2

Nastia Luikin—Gymnast


Bmi body mass index3

BMIBody Mass Index

6’4” and 195 lbs = BMI of 24 kg/m2

Michael Phelps—Swimmer


Bmi body mass index4

BMIBody Mass Index

5’10” and 195 lbs = BMI of 28 kg/m2


Bmi body mass index5

BMIBody Mass Index

5’10” and 322 lbs = BMI of 46 kg/m2


Bmi body mass index6

BMIBody Mass Index

7’1” and 325 lbs = BMI of 31.6 kg/m2

Shaq—Basketball Player


Causes of obesity

Causes of Obesity

  • Diet

  • Sedentary Lifestyle

  • Genetics


Risks of obesity

Risks of Obesity

  • Heart Disease

  • Cancer

  • Type II Diabetes

  • Arthritis

  • Sleep Apnea

  • Depression

  • Gall Stones


How dangerous is obesity

How Dangerous is Obesity?

  • With a BMI of 32, your risk of dying at any given time DOUBLES

  • Obesity on average shortens your life by 6-7 years

  • Severe obesity on average shortens your life by 20 years


Prevalence of obesity

Prevalence of Obesity

  • 32% of Americans are obese

  • The obesity rate has doubled since 1980

  • Obesity is possibly the leading preventable cause of death in America


Childhood obesity

Childhood Obesity

Obesity isn’t just for old people anymore


16 20 of kids in the us are obese

16-20% of Kids in the US are Obese


Kids in rural areas are more likely to be obese

Kids in rural areas areMORE likely to be Obese


Childhood obesity has dangerous long and short term health consequences

Childhood obesity has dangerous long- and short-term health consequences


Lots of factors are being blamed

Lots of Factors are Being Blamed

Video games

Cultural changes

Higher consumption of junk food

Removing PE from schools

The internet

Fewer sit-down meals with the family

Cable and satellite TV

Poverty

Public transportation

More families owning multiple cars

Obese parents making it easier for their kids to be obese

Teenage dieting fads and eating disorders

It’s probably a combination of them all


Lots of factors are being blamed1

Lots of Factors are Being Blamed

Video games

Cultural changes

Higher consumption of junk food

Removing PE from schools

The internet

Fewer sit-down meals with the family

Cable and satellite TV

Poverty

Public transportation

More families owning multiple cars

Obese parents making it easier for their kids to be obese

Teenage dieting fads and eating disorders

It’s probably a combination of them all


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