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www.unido.org. THE ARAB QUALITY AND FOOD SAFETY CONFERENCE 15-16 June 2006, Beirut “QUALITY AND GLOBAL TRADE” UNIDO Perspective Gerardo Patacconi IDO, UNIDO Focal Point for UNIDO/WTO MoU and ISO/DEVCO Trade Capacity Building Branch G.Patacconi@unido.org. www.unido.org.

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THE ARAB QUALITY AND FOOD SAFETY CONFERENCE 15-16 June 2006, Beirut “QUALITY AND GLOBAL TRADE”

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THE ARAB QUALITY AND FOOD SAFETY CONFERENCE

15-16 June 2006, Beirut

“QUALITY AND GLOBAL TRADE”

UNIDO Perspective

Gerardo Patacconi

IDO, UNIDO Focal Point for UNIDO/WTO MoU and ISO/DEVCO

Trade Capacity Building Branch

G.Patacconi@unido.org


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Emerging Quality and Safety issues

  • Food scares and other security issues

  • Global, regional, national TBT/SPS regulations

  • Standards and Conformity Assessment infrastructure

  • Supply-capacity (quality, quantity, price) and competitiveness

  • global/regional value chains

  • UNIDO Global Approach


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Food scares and other security issues

I’ve got MAD……….

and the World become CRAZY

about improving food quality and safety systems


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EMERGING ISSUES

  • Focus on supply-chain and border security:

  • Bioterrorism Act) to protect the US from the threat of bioterrorism using the food chain.(Registration, US Agent, Prior Notice and Establishment and Maintenance of Records)

  • Custom Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

  • The Container Security initiative (CSI)

  • The 24-Hour Rule

HIGH COST

SECURITY: Risk of deliberate contamination, frauds and misuse of shipment

SAFETY: Distribution of unsafe/adulterated Food products (to be withdrawn from the supply chain and timely and accurate information given to consumers)

  • Focus on supply-chain and food safety:

  • EU Food Law – Regulation (EC) 178/2002

  • Residual of pesticides

  • Labeling,

  • Standards/Technical Regulations

  • Conformity Assessment procedures

  • ………….


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  • Standards and Conformity Assessment infrastructure

  • Poor physical facilities/infrastructure

  • Limited academic and research capabilities and technical/scientific know-how/skills

  • Inefficient institutional set up (Standards and conformity assessment functions, when exist, are scatters among too many institutions)

  • Early focus on mandatory standards and inspection

  • Revenues generated could not be retained due to the public law status


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  • Standards and Conformity Assessment infrastructure

  • Labs established even with donor support not sustainable

  • Donation of equipment with poor planning, training, and lacking adequate local physical infrastructure/staff, absorbion capacity

  • Political instability and conflicts,

  • Lack of funding

  • Lack of demand

  • Low-level of manufacturing due to focus on commodities

  • Exposed to barriers to trade especially SPS measures


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Standards and Conformity Assessment infrastructure

  • Poor and uneven quality of local products

  • National quality infrastructure lacks credibility and tests and certificates by local laboratories notrecognized in export countries.

  • Inability of DCs to utilize preferential treatment/ market access concessions.

High Risk of rejection of products in export markets due to lack of conformity (TBS and SPS).


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Supply-capacity (quality, quantity, price) and competitiveness and integration in regional/global value chains


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Global Trade Growth & Marginalisation

World exports, 1980-2004 (US$ billion)

  • Share of developing countries in global trade only 26%

  • Every 1% growth in Trade, LEADS TO one-half % Income increase

  • Over 75% of global trade is in manufactures (Industry the key)


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+11%

+19%

- 9%

- 20%

Immediate Opportunities: Agro Food Exports

World and Developing country exports of fish,processed fruits & vegetables now exceed the combined value of exports of tropical crops: Cotton, Coffee, Sugar, Tobacco. (source:UN COMTRADE)


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Immediate Opportunities: Agro Food Exports


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Global Trade Challenges

Tariffs reduced – Other Barriers remain

“LDCs have neither the surplus of capacity of exportable products nor the production capacity to take immediate advantage of new trade opportunities”

Kofi Annan - UN SG, Financial Times, 5 Mar. 2001

US$ 1.75 bn.exports from developing countries have been disrupted in2004, due to SPS (food safety) non-compliance. Whileonly US$ 53 mn. spent by donors onSPS support.

World Bank 2004, Steven Jaffee & Spencer Henson, Standards and Agro-Food Exports from Developing Countries – Rebalancing the Debate

COST OF COMPLIANCE TO FOOD SAFETY RULES -UNIDO Estimates

Shrimp exports to the EU - Testing and Compliance cost adds 2.8%

Enterprise Quality/safety set up cost – adds 5% to product cost

National Quality & Testing infrastructure – US$ 5.0 mn. to US$ 25.0 mn.


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ISO 22000

direct

supplier to

the retail

AFITA/WCCA 2004

Quality systems in the Agri-Food-Industry

Stages of the

food industry

-

retail

processing

farmer

Feed industry

-

Q+S

Certus

IKB

Label Rouge

GMP

EurepGAP

BQM

Agri Confiance

QM-Milch

IKM KKM

DQG

IFS

EFSIS BRC

Quality systems

Quality and safety and Beyond


Integration Needs

DifferentProduct Lines

BRC

HACCP

ABM

Enterprise/ChainManagementSystem

ISO 22000

ISO9000

Q+S

Traceability

GHP

ISO14001

EurepGAP

IFS

etc.

GMP 1...X

SQF


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Quality

Price

safety

AFITA/WCCA 2004

The “big”dilemma


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Compete

Conform

Connect

UNIDO GLOBAL APPROACH: The UNIDO 3 Cs

  • “Countries must have marketable products for export”

     COMPETITIVITY of productive capacities

  • “Products must conform to requirements of clients and markets”

     CONFORMITYwith standards

  • “Rules for trade applied and simplified cross border transactions”

     CONNECTIVITYto markets


Forming Strategic Partnerships for Trade Capacity Building


Thank You


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Total UNIDO TRTA Portfolio: OECD/WTO TCB Data Base

UNIDO TCB projects 2005: US$ 64.6 Mn.

Additional US$ 90.4 Mn. under negotiations

Source: UNIDO elaboration


Case of Egypt

Traceability of agro-industrial products for the European Market

Situation Before

  • Exporters not aware of impact of new Directive EC 178/2002 that could become a TBT as of 1st January 2005:

  • Insufficient national capability to assess the problem, its impact and implement cost-effective solutions

  • Lack of funding (institutions/enterprises)

  • Risk of loosing foreign markets by local suppliers and complementary industries

  • Key priority exported products to be effected with high negative impact not known


Case of Egypt

Traceability of agro-industrial products for the European Market

Situation Today

  • TRTA/CB Project elaborated jointly by UNIDO and the Ministry of Foreign Trade (MOFT) with support of Italian authorities

  • TRTA/CB funded utilising a debt swap agreed between Italy and Egypt and linked to an Italian Initiative for trade facilitation called the “green corridor”

  • Egyptian producers assisted and traceability scheme implemented and linkages with Italian/European Importers established

Funded in the framework of the “Debt-for-Development Swap” agreement (19.02.2001) by the Government of the Italian Republic and the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt


Case of Egypt

Traceability of agro-industrial products for the European Market

Situation Today

  • Assistance to Pack Houses (~100) and through them to over 5000 producers

  • Available software assessed and 5 best options selected

  • UNIDO Traceability manual developed and adopted

  • Over 600 Egyptian trained in traceability and related issues

  • Physical traceability assessed (farm to fork)

  • Value chain analysis of selected products

  • Mapping of pack Houses and production pattern


Case of Egypt

Traceability of agro-industrial products for the European Market

Situation Today

  • Financial scheme designed

  • Applicants to traceability fund assessed (ICT infrastructure, traceability system SWAT, assistance in selection of technology, support in implementation)

  • Physical traceability assessed (farm to fork)

  • Assess sector technology upgrading needs

  • Assistance planned for Plant Quarantine system

  • Preparatory work for assistance to food manufacturers (also internal traceability)


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