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Social Studies Review. Passing The Georgia High School Graduation Test United States History The Great Depression to Now. Stock market Speculation. Speculation- is high risk investment in the hopes of making large returns on their money.

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Social studies review l.jpg

Social Studies Review

Passing The Georgia High School Graduation Test

United States History

The Great Depression to Now


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Stock market Speculation

  • Speculation- is high risk investment in the hopes of making large returns on their money.

  • This caused people to lose their money and some people everything when the market crashed on Black Tuesday


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SSUSH 17 The students will analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression

  • Describe the causes including over production, under consumption and stock market speculation that led to the stock market crash of 1929.

  • Explain the impact of the drought in the creation of the Dust Bowl.

    c. Explain the social an political of widespread unemployment that resulted in the developments such as Hoovervilles


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Overproduction/Under consumption

  • Overproduction- is when the market has more products than the consumers want

  • Under consumption- consumer’s are reluctant to buy all the products that have been produced.

  • These two events cause a fall in prices that hurt producers, raise unemployment and hurt the economy.


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Causes of the Great Depression

  • Overproduction and Under consumption that led to falling prices.

  • Consumerism: citizens began buying and spending more money than they saved.

  • Buying risky stocks on Speculation and “Buying on the Margin.”

  • Stock Market Crash of 1929 “Black Tuesday.”


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Dust Bowl

  • Between 1933 and 1936 the land between the Dakotas and Texas received little rain.

  • Wind picked up the loosened soil and spread it across the nation creating dust storms, blowing away top soil.

  • Farmers left their homes left their homes by the thousands and moved to the Pacific Coast looking for work.

  • This further aggravated the problems of unemployment in the area, increasing the problems associated with the Great Depression.


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Hoovervilles

  • Communities built out of tents and shacks.

  • This is where the unemployed lived that had no homes in cities.

  • People were forced to find food in soup kitchens since no one could afford to buy farm product.

  • The lack of money caused 85,000 businesses to shut down and 400,000 farmers to lose their farms from 1929 through 1933.

  • Malnutrition also rose from 18% to 60% because of social and economic problems.


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Test Questions

1. Generally the 1920s were marked by

  • Rising farm pricesb. Rising stock prices

    c. Falling Productiond. Falling Wages Answer is B

  • Uneven prosperity, personal debt and overproduction were all warning signs of an unsound economy.

  • Welfare capitalismb. Frequent strikes by unions

  • Stock market speculationd. Isolationism Answer is C

  • A major Environmental crisis of the 1930s were known as

  • The Dust Bowlb. The Grapes of Wrath

    c. The Great Crashd. Black TuesdayAnswer is A


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SSUSH 18

The New Deal


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SSUSH18 The student will describe Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as a response to the depression and compare the ways the governmental programs aided those in need.

  • Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a works program and as an effort to control the environment.

  • Explain the Wagner Act and rise of industrial unionism.

  • Explain the passage of the Social Security Act as a part of the second New Deal

  • Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol of social progress and women’s activism.

  • Identify the political challenges to Roosevelt’s domestic and international leadership including the role of Huey Long, the court packing bill, and the Neutrality Act.


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Tennessee Valley Authority

  • Established in 1933, the TVA built hydroelectric dams to create jobs, control flooding and bring cheap electricity to the South.

  • The southern Appalachians were historically one of the poorest areas of the nation.

  • The TVA helped the region prosper as never before.


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Wagner Act of 1935

  • Created a board to monitor unfair management practices such as firing workers who joined unions.

  • The act protected rights of workers to organize unions, engage in collective bargaining and to go on strike.

  • The act demonstrated support of workers and made Roosevelt extremely popular among laborers and union leaders.


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Social Security Act of 1935

  • The act established retirement income for all workers once they reach the age of 65.

  • It provided benefits to certain unemployed workers.

  • It is the only New Deal program still around today.

  • Frances Perkins- was the first woman appointed to a cabinet post and one of the architects of the Social Security Act.


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Eleanor Roosevelt

  • She was the wife of President FDR.

  • She looked for ways to alleviate the suffering in the black community.

  • Black Cabinet- made up of black community leaders, that resented grievances to the government.

  • She also took a more active role in her husbands administration.


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Challenges to FDR’s policy

Huey Long- used half truths and scare tactics to attack FDR’s policies. He proposed share the wealth, dividing up the money in America.

Court Packing Bill- FDR was turned down on this policy when he attempted to increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court.

Neutrality Act- forbade the United States from arms sales to warring nations. FDR knew that this hurt warring nations of Europe.


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Test Questions

  • Under the New Deal, Labor unions were

  • Legalized and grew strongerb. Attacked and became weak

  • Fined for discriminationd. Given almost unlimited power

    Answer is A

  • Why were Huey Long and Father Charles E. Coughlin referred to as demagogues?

  • Used half truths and scare tactics b. State ownership of farms and factories

  • Bribery to pass New Deal programs d. Planned most New Deal programs

    Answer is A.

  • Which of the following aroused the greatest opposition?

  • Wagner Actb. Social Security System

  • Government funding of the Artsd. Attempt to pack the Supreme Court

    Answer is d


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SSUSH 19

The United States and World War II


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SSUSH 19 The Student will identify the origins, major developments, and domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the Federal Government.

  • Explain A. Philip’s Randolph’s proposed march on Washington D.C. and President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response.

  • Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese Americans.

  • Explain the major events including the lend lease programs, the Battle of Midway, D-Day and the fall of Berlin.

  • Describe war mobilization, as included by rationing, war time conversions and the role of women in war industries.

  • Describe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing the atomic bomb.


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A. Philip Randolph’s March

  • Randolph was angry about discrimination taking place with in unions and war industry.

  • Randolph organized a march of Washington D.C. in June 1941, to protest discrimination.

  • On June 25, 1941 President Roosevelt issued Executive order 8802 that bared discrimination in defense industries and government bureaus.

  • Randolph’s efforts helped convince President Truman to integrate the military in July 26, 1948.


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Pearl Harbor and Japanese Internment

  • Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec 7th 1941.

  • The attack was in-retaliation for the United States embargo on natural resources being sent to Japan.

  • The United Stats stood in Japan’s way of expanding in the rich natural resources areas of Southwest Asia.

  • Internment Camps were set up for citizens who were Italian, German and Japanese, because it was feared they were loyal to the Axis Powers.

  • 100,000 Japanese Americans who were American citizens were interned in camps in remote areas of the United States.

  • This was upheld by the Supreme Court and the Japanese American in internment lost everything that they owned.


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Major Military events of WWII

  • Lend-Lease Program- the President could send military aid to any country whose defense was considered vital to American Defense. If country’s could not pay, the payment was deferred.

  • Battle of Midway- this American victory in 1942 over Japan was the turning point of war in the Pacific. This allowed American forces to go on the offensive in the Pacific.

  • D Day- on June 6, 1941 allies invaded Europe with 500,000 troops the largest amphibious invasion in history. Operation Overlord marked the beginning of the end of the war in Europe.

  • Fall of Berlin- he push by allied forces marked the end of the war in Europe, with March 8, 1945 (VE Day) being the end of the war in Europe.


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War Mobilization

  • Rationing- the government controlled how certain resources were distributed. Citizens were restricted on buying certain items like sugar and tires.

  • Victory Gardens- were started by citizens to feed themselves and free up food for the soldiers on the front.

  • Rosie the Riveter- was the symbol of an American woman working in a factory while her boyfriend was a Marine away fighting. Women of all age and races replaced men in factories who were off fighting in the war. This helped expand the rights of women after the World War II was finished.


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Los Alamos and the Atomic Bomb

  • Los Alamos- was the location in New Mexico were the atomic bomb was built, known as the Manhattan Project.

  • The Manhattan was possible based on a large amount of resources directed to the project by the United States government and the cooperation of many different members of the scientific community.

  • The cities Hiroshimia and Nagasaki in Japan were the two sites where the Atomic Bombs were dropped.

  • This brought an end to the war in the Pacific and allowed the United States to avoid invading the country of Japan.

  • Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945 to General Douglas MacArthur.


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Test Questions

  • The Japanese leaders believed they could cripple the American naval fleet?

  • In the Dutch East Indesb. In Manchuria

  • At Pearl Harbord. At Shanghai Answer is C

  • In the 1950s, scientist succeeded in using atomic energy to

  • Make better vaccinesb. Run automobiles

  • Generate electrical powerd. Streamline computers Answer is C

  • Because of the war, large number of women began to work as

  • Household servantsb. Cooks and sales clerk

  • Steelworkers and weldersd. Factory managers

    The Answer is C


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SSUSH 20

Cold War and the United States


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SSUSH 20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States

  • Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine and the origins and implications of the containment policy.

  • Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China, the outbreak of the Korean War, and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy.

  • Describe Cuban Revolution the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban missile crisis.

  • Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the war.


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The start of the Cold War

  • Marshall Plan- financial plan was developed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall. It sparked economic recovery in Western Europe. The 12 billion dollars helped stop the Soviet Union from spreading into Western Europe.

  • The Truman Doctrine- the policy started by helping the countries of Greece and Turkey, stop Soviet expansion into their country. The United States would help any country that apposed communism

  • Policy of Containment- the United States would provide aid to any country that apposed communism. The policy was to contain communism in the countries it was already in and not let it expand into surrounding countries.

  • The Iron Curtain- term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the division between Communist and non-Communist life.


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DividingGermany

  • U.S., Britain, and France merged their zones in 1948 to create an independent West German state.

  • The Soviets responded by blockading land access to Berlin. The U.S. began a massive airlift of supplies that lasted almost a year. (7,000 tons a day) In May 1949 Stalin lifted the blockade, conceding that he could not prevent the creation of West Germany.

  • Thus, the creation of East and West Germany


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The Division of Berlin


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The Cold War Heats Up:Problems of the Atomic Age

  • The most frightening aspect of the Cold War was the constant threat of nuclear war.

    • Russia detonated its first atom bomb in 1949.

    • Truman ordered construction of the hydrogen bomb.

  • Call for buildup of conventional forces to provide alternative to nuclear war.


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The Rise of Communism

  • China- Mao Zedong was the leader of communist China. He had strict control of all aspects of life in China. He made use of force to destroy his enemies and keep control of the country.

  • The Korean War- the war started when communist troops from North Korea invaded democratic South Korea. The United States and the UN aided South Korea, but China became involved when the allied forces invaded North Korea. The war ended July 27, 1953, with Korea being divided along the 38th parallel.

  • McCarthyism- was started by Senator Joseph McCarthy. He held hearings trying to prove that members of the United States government were communist. He held hearings over four years, but was unable to prove his charges, even though he ruined the lives of many people


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McCarthy accusing those of communist tendencies

Sen. Joseph McCarthy


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The Korean War (1950-1953)

  • Since the end of WWII, North Korea and South Korea were divided by the 38th parallel.

  • Soviet-backed troops from North Korea invaded U.S.-backed South Korea in June 1950


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The Korean War (1950-1953)


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Cuban Revolution

  • Cuban Revolution- (1956) the forces of Fidel Castro defeated the government of Cuba. Castro turned to communism after economic sanctions were applied by the United States. Castro declared himself president for life.

  • Bay of Pigs- (1961) 1,500 Cuban exiles trained and armed by CIA tried to invade Cuba. JFK refused to involve US forces, exiles captured by Castro. US had to give $53 million in food and supplies for release of exiles. The failure of this operation was an embarrassment to the Kennedy administration and led to the Cuban Missile Crisis.

  • Cuban Missile Crisis- (1962) USSR built missile launch sites in Cuba. JFK responded by blockading Cuba unless USSR withdrew. Compromised by USSR removing their missiles from Cuba and US removing their missiles from Turkey


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Khrushchev and Kennedy struggle for power

Cuban exiles captured

Bay of Pigs


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Vietnam War

  • Vietnam War was fought from 1957-1975. The United States helped the democratic forces of South Korea against the communist of North Korea supported by the Soviet Union.

  • Tet Offensive- was an offensive in 1968, when the forces of North Vietnam attacked forces in South Vietnam. Most of the fighting was in cities in the South. Even though the North was defeated in the battle, it turned American public opinion against the war.

  • The United States became divided on the Vietnam War. The hawks wanted the country to continue the war and the doves wanted peace. There were 50,000 ant-war demonstrators who marched on Washington, the firing on students at Kent State by the National Guardsmen and Daniel Ellsberg leaking a secret study on the war to the press. These events caused America to leave the war in March of 1973.


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Student shot at Kent State University in Ohio.


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Test Questions

1. President Truman issued the Truman Doctrine in response to

  • Soviet aggression in Poland b. Pressure by communist in Greece and Turkey

  • Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech d. Stalin’s demands at Potsdam Conference

  • What was the goal of the Marshall Plan?

  • To help the United States buy its way into European Affairs.

  • To create stable democracies that could resist communism.

  • To establish strong trading partners in Asia.

  • To force the Soviet Union to allow more emigration.

  • What was the final resolution of the Korean War.

  • North gained controlb. South gained control

  • Dividing line moved northd. Dividing line stayed about the same


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SSUSH 21

The student will explain economic growth and its impact on the United States, 1945-1970.


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USH 21a

Describe the baby boom and its impact as shown by Levittown and Interstate Highway Act.


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The Baby Boom

The baby boom, or rise in birth rates, that had begun in the 1940s continued into the 1950s.


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Suburbs, Cars, and Highways

Suburban Growth

  • The GI Bill of Rights gave returning soldiers low-income mortgages, enabling many to buy homes in newly built suburbs

  • Developers such as William J. Levitt built entire communities quickly and on one mold, using preassembled materials.

  • Although most Americans enjoyed living in communities such as Levitt’s, others complained that the new developments lacked variety.

Cars and Highways

  • The growth of suburbs led more Americans to rely on cars for everyday transportation.

  • More and better roads were needed to support the increase in cars. The 1956 Federal-Aid Highway Act provided billions of dollars to build an interstate highway system.

  • Cars became part of American culture as new businesses such as drive-in movies emerged.


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Levittown


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USH 21b

Describe the impact television has had on American culture; include the presidential debates (Kennedy/Nixon,1960) and news coverage of the Civil Rights Movement.


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The Election of 1960

A New Type of Candidate

  • Democratic Senator John F. Kennedy had served in the House and Senate for 14 years when he ran for President in 1960.

  • Still, some questioned his candidacy because of his young age, 43, and his Roman Catholic religious beliefs.

  • Kennedy proved to be an engaging television personality during the 1960 presidential debates, the first such debates to be televised.

A Narrow Kennedy Victory

  • Kennedy won the 1960 election by an extremely close margin.

  • Kennedy was separated from his opponent, Republican Richard Nixon, by fewer than 119,000 popular votes out of nearly 69 million cast.

  • Because of the close election, Kennedy entered office without a mandate, or public endorsement of his proposals.


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Kennedy/Nixon Debate, 1960


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Kennedy on Civil Rights

  • During the 1960 presidential campaign, Kennedy won the support of many African American voters.

  • Kennedy had voted for civil rights measures in the Senate but had not actively supported them. As President, he moved slowly on civil rights issues, not wanting to anger southern Democrats.

  • Hours after Kennedy had given a speech against discrimination, civil rights leader Medgar Evers was murdered. This murder made it clear that government action was needed.

  • After violence erupted in Birmingham in 1963, Kennedy introduced a stronger civil rights bill than he had originally planned. This bill called for an end to segregation in public places and in situations where federal funding was involved.


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USH 21 c

Analyze the impact of technology on American life; include the development of the personal computer and the cellular telephone.


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Technology Transforms Life

Developments in Technology During the 1950s

  • Television — Television becomes a popular and powerful medium.

  • Computers and Electronics — The invention of the transistor, a tiny circuit device that amplifies, controls, and generates electrical signals, revolutionizes computers and radios.

  • Nuclear Power — Wartime nuclear research is put to peacetime use in nuclear power plants and nuclear-powered submarines.

  • Advances in Medicine — Dr. Jonas Salk develops a vaccine against polio; advances in antibiotics and surgical techniques save countless lives.


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Computers


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USH 21 d

Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I and President Eisenhower’s actions.


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The Space Program

  • The Soviet Union’s launch of the Sputniksatellite in 1957 inspired the United States to work toward placing a manned spacecraft in orbit.

  • In April 1961, Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel in space. Americans worried that their technology was falling behind that of the Soviet Union.

  • Funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was increased. In 1961 and 1962, American astronauts made initial space flights.

  • On July 20, 1969, American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon.


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The Cold War in the 1950s: USSR

  • October 4, 1957 – USSR launched the first satellite, Sputnik, into orbit.

    • The Sputnik launch confirmed the Soviet Union’s superpower status.

  • Two months earlier they had tested an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).

  • Khrushchev – “We will bury you”


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The Cold War in the 1950s: U.S.

  • Dwight Eisenhower takes over from Truman in 1953.

    • Democrats charged Republicans for “missile gap”

    • Eisenhower responded.

  • Enlarged defense spending; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

  • By 1962-63, the U.S. had 450 missiles and 2,000 bombers capable at striking the Soviet Union, compared to 50-100 ICBMS and 200 bombers that could reach the U.S.


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AssessmentUSH 21 a-d

In the United States, television was instrumental in

  • Promoting understanding between Americans and the Vietnamese

  • Developing enthusiasm for the American war effort in Vietnam.

  • Bringing the brutality of the war into people’s living rooms

  • Revealing the contents of classified military documents.

    In the televised presidential debates between Kennedy and Nixon, Kennedy appeared to be

  • Less intelligent than Nixon

  • More polished than Nixon

  • More conservative than Nixon

  • More experienced than Nixon

    Which of the following events had the greatest influence on the suburbanization that began after the Second WW?

  • Increasing availability of automobiles and roads.

  • Increasing ability to construct high-rise building

  • Increasing availability of home computers and internet connections

  • Increasing concern about the environment and air quality


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Assessment

Beginning in the 1960’s a discernible trend in internal migration developed that involved

  • Movement south as a result of affordable air-conditioning.

  • Movement to the northeast as the result of a new industrial revolution

  • Movement to the rural areas as a result of telecommuting

  • Movement our of California as a result of the death of the American aerospace industry.

    Which of the following post-World War II societal changes was MOST responsible for the baby-boom?

  • Women had taken jobs in manufacturing and the professions.

  • People moved from the farms to the cities in large number

  • Victory in war and economic prosperity led to a general feeling of optimism.

  • The religious revival, called the third Great Awakening, led to a massive return to the basic tenets and practices of Christianity.

    Which of the following was most responsible for the spread of US culture around the world in the late 1920s and 1930s?

    a .America’s rapid colonization of nations all around the globe

    b. America’s rapidly developing entertainment industry, particularly movies

    d. America’s huge negative net migration as US citizens fled aboard

    d. A general world-wide feeling that other cultures were inherently inferior to that of the US


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GPS USH 22

The student will identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1970.


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USH 22 a

Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to integrate the U.S. military and the federal government.


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Integration in the Military

July 1948-President Truman issued Executive Order 9981, declaring that “three shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services”-he order desegregation of military facilities “ be put into effect as rapidly as possible” . Desegregation was slow in the 1940’s and by 1951, most of the units in Korea were integrated.


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USH 22b

Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball.


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Jackie Robinson

First black player in modern Major League Baseball, April 10, 1947-Rookie of the Year, 1947-first black inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame, 1962.


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USH 22c

Explain Brown v Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision.


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Brown v. Board of Education

  • In 1951, Oliver Brown wanted his 8-year-old daughter to attend a Topeka, Kansas school, which only white children were permitted to attend.

  • Brown sued the Topeka Board of Education, and his case reached the Supreme Court. Thurgood Marshall of the NAACP argued Brown’s case.

  • On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court issued its ruling in the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case. In this ruling, the court supported Brown’s case for desegregation, stating that, “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”

  • A year later, the Court ruled that local school boards should move to desegregate “with all deliberate speed.”


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Reaction to Brown v. Board of Education

  • Many Americans, both white and African American, rejoiced at the Brown ruling. Others accepted the decision although they did not agree with it, hoping that desegregation could take place peacefully.

  • Many southern whites, especially in the Deep South, vehemently opposed the ruling. Congressional representatives of states in the Deep South joined together to protest the decision, claiming that it violated states’ rights.


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Demands for Civil Rights—Assessment

Why was the Brown v. Board of Education ruling considered important?

(A) It stated that separate educational facilities were unequal.

(B) It banned segregation on buses.

(C) It demanded that school districts move toward desegregation.

(D) It provided military protection for African American students.


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USH 22 d

Describe the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail and his I have a dream speech.


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Clash in Birmingham

Marches in Birmingham

  • In April 1963, Martin Luther King joined the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth in a civil rights campaign in Birmingham, Alabama.

  • City officials ordered civil rights protesters to end the march that was part of this campaign. When they did not, King and others were arrested.

  • While in Birmingham Jail, King wrote a famous letter defending his tactics and his timing.

Response to the Marches

  • King was released more than a week later and continued the campaign, making the difficult decision to allow young people to participate.

  • Police attacked the marchers with high-pressure fire hoses, police dogs, and clubs. As television cameras captured the violence, Americans around the country were horrified.


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The March on Washington

  • To focus national attention on Kennedy’s bill, civil rights leaders proposed a march in Washington, D.C. The March on Washington was held in August 1963.

  • More than 200,000 people came to the peaceful and orderly march, including musicians, religious leaders, and celebrities.

  • At the march, Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered what was to become his best-known speech, “I Have a Dream.”

  • Despite the success of the march, Kennedy’s civil rights bill remained stalled in Congress.


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USH 22 e

Describe the causes and consequence of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.


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Provisions of the Civil Rights Act

Some Provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • Title I — Banned the use of different voter registration standards for blacks and whites

  • Title II — Prohibited discrimination in public accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, and theaters

  • Title VI — Allowed the withholding of federal funds from programs that practice discrimination

  • Title VII — Banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin by employers and unions and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)


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Assessment

President Truman ordered an end to discrimination in

  • Arkansas

  • The armed forces

  • Labor union

  • The transportation

    The Supreme Court decision in Brown v Board of Education ended

  • The “separate but equal” doctrine.

  • Jackie Robinson’s career in baseball

  • Eisenhower’s support of civil rights.

  • Discrimination in the hiring of federal employees.

    After Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965,

  • The Civil Rights movement slowly ended.

  • White Southerners still prevented most African Americans from voting.

  • Many African Americans were elected to office at all levels.

  • The Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional.


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Assessment

Which of the following was a provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

(A)Withholding of federal funds to discriminatory programs

(B)Prohibition of literacy tests

(C)Banning of poll taxes

  • Providing federal agents to register African American voter.

    Which of the following civil rights leaders were responsible for the Montgomery Bus Boycott?

  • Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X

  • Jesse Jackson and Andrew Young

  • Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr.

  • Cesar Chavez and Fred Ross

    Which of the following represents the significance of Little Rock Central High School in the history of civil rights?

  • A Supreme Court case involving the school declared segregation unconstitutional.

  • It was the location at which the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was founded.

  • It was a polling location at which the Voting Rights Act was firs enforced.

  • It was the school at which integration of public schools was enforced by federal troops.


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SSUSH 24

The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960’s.


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USH 24 a

Compare and contrast the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides, and changing composition.


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Sit-ins Challenge Segregation

  • CORE created the sit-in in 1943 as a tactic to desegregate the Jack Spratt Coffee House in Chicago. The sit-in became a common, and powerful, tactic of the civil rights movement.

  • During a sit-in, protesters sat down in a segregated public place, such as a lunch counter, refusing to leave until they were served.

  • Sit-ins brought strong reactions in some places. People opposed to desegregation would sometimes mock, beat, or pour food on the protesters. Many sit-in participants were arrested and sent to jail.


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The Freedom Rides

The Purpose of the Freedom Rides

  • The 1960 Supreme Court case Boynton v. Virginia expanded the earlier ban on bus segregation to include bus stations and restaurants that served interstate travelers.

  • In 1961, CORE and SNCC organized the Freedom Rides to test southern compliance with this ruling.

Violence Greets the Riders

  • Although the freedom riders expected confrontation, the violence which greeted a bus in Anniston, Alabama, was more than they had anticipated.

  • A heavily armed white mob disabled the bus and then set it on fire. As riders escaped from the bus, they were beaten by the mob.


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A New Voice for Students

  • A new civil rights group run by young activists, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), began in 1960 at a meeting in Raleigh, North Carolina.

  • SNCC soon became an independent civil rights organization. Its members sought immediate change, as opposed to the gradual change advocated by most older organizations.

  • One of SNCC’s most influential leaders was Robert Moses, a Harvard graduate student and mathematics teacher. Moses led with a quiet, humble style which earned him the admiration of his followers.


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Reaction to the Freedom Rides

  • Americans were horrified by the violence which had greeted the bus in Anniston.

  • Despite the potential danger involved, Freedom Rides continued during the summer. Many riders were arrested.

  • Attorney General Robert Kennedy had originally been opposed to lending federal support to the Freedom Rides. However, he later sent federal marshals to protect the riders.

  • Kennedy also pressured the Interstate Commerce Commission to prohibit segregation in all interstate transportation. The Justice Department began to sue communities that did not comply.


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USH 24 b

Describe the National Organization of Women and the origins and goals of the modern women’s movement.


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Background of the Women’s Movement

  • The 1960s saw a resurgence of feminism, a term first used in 1895 to describe the theory of political, economic, and social equality of men and women.

  • The women’s movement in the 1960s sought to change aspects of American life that had been accepted for decades. More women had begun to achieve higher levels of education, and many desired the same employment opportunities available to men.

  • The civil rights movement provided the women’s movement with inspiration, strategies, and legal tools. Women who worked for civil rights applied the skills they had gained to the women’s movement.

  • Many women were frustrated to discover that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission set up by the 1964 Civil Rights Act did not take women’s discrimination claims seriously.


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The Impact of Feminism

Publications and Popularity

  • More and more women began identifying themselves as feminists.

  • Tens of thousands of demonstrators gathered at an August 1970 march in New York City to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of women’s suffrage.

  • Books such as Our Bodies, Ourselves encouraged women to understand their own health issues. Ms. magazine, first published in 1972 by Gloria Steinem, became enormously popular.

Women in Politics

  • In 1972, Congress passed a prohibition against gender discrimination as part of the Higher Education Act.

  • Groups such as the National Women’s Political Caucus gained broader support for the goals of the women’s movement.

  • New Yorker Shirley Chisholm, a founder of the National Women’s Political Caucus, served in the House of Representatives from 1969 to 1983 and ran for President in 1972.


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Women’s Groups Organize

The Feminine Mystique and Support Groups

  • Betty Friedan’s 1963 book The Feminine Mystique became an important influence in the women’s movement.

  • Women began forming consciousness-raising groups dedicated to increasing their members’ awareness of women’s situation in society.

Organizing NOW

  • In 1966, a group of 28 professional women, including Betty Friedan, formed the National Organization for Women (NOW).

  • NOW advocated women’s issues such as fair pay, equal job opportunities, a more realistic portrayal of women in the media, and a more even balance of responsibilities in marriage.


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USH 24 e

Explain Rachel Carson and Silent Spring, Earth Day, the creation of the EPS and modern environmentalist movement.


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Public and Government Response

Public Response

  • A 1969 oil spill in Santa Barbara, California, captured public attention when oil fouled beaches and killed much wildlife.

  • Grassroots environmental movements began to oppose the building of dams and nuclear power plants.

  • On April 22, 1970, Americans celebrated the first Earth Day, an annual observance to increase awareness of environmental issues.

Government Actions

  • In 1970, President Nixon established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  • The EPA’s responsibilities included enforcing the 1970 Clean Air Act and the 1972 Clean Water Act.

  • The Clean Air Act was designed to control the pollution caused by industries and car emissions.

  • The Clean Water Act regulated the discharge of wastewater and provided grants to build better sewage-treatment facilities.


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Balancing Jobs and the Environment

Industrial Costs

  • Many industry leaders worried that the increased costs of cleaning up the air and water would result in a loss of jobs.

  • These industry leaders worked with government leaders to balance economic development with environmental protection.

Oil Fields in Alaska

  • Construction of an oil pipeline in Alaska proved to be an example of such a balance.

  • The construction created new jobs and raised revenue for the state.

  • However, the growing size of the oil industry raised concerns about the Alaskan wilderness as well as the rights of native Alaskans.

  • Land was therefore set aside for the use of native Alaskans, partially for conservation purposes.


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Assessment

After watching television coverage of the brutal tactics used against protesters by the Birmingham police, even opponents of the civil rights movement were

  • Appalled by the police violence

  • Angry with the peaceful protesters

  • Supportive of the actions of the police

  • Uninterested in the confrontation

    One example of the shift in attitudes brought about by the women’s movement was a significant change in

  • Racial discrimination

  • Men’s treatment of women

  • Women’s career goals.

  • Homemaking tasks.

    The book Silent Spring exposed the harmful use of

  • Nuclear power

  • Chemical such as DDT

  • Cars and trucks

  • Clean ari and clean water


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