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Global Perspectives on Health. Session 3 The Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Measuring Health Status Dr. Kate Tairyan, MD, MPH. Learning Objectives. Describe the determinants of health Define the most important health indicators

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global perspectives on health

Global Perspectives on Health

Session 3

The Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Measuring Health Status

Dr. Kate Tairyan, MD, MPH

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the determinants of health
  • Define the most important health indicators
  • Discuss the differences between incidence and prevalence; morbidity, disability, and mortality; and non-communicable and communicable diseases
determinants of health
Determinants of Health
  • Why are some people healthy and some not healthy?
  • What determines health?
  • Is it possible to control/influence determinants?
slide4

“State of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” WHO

slide5

Physical and Social Environment

Health Behaviors/Lifestyle

Health

Individual characteristics

Access to Health Services

Determinants of Health

determinants of health1
Determinants of Health
  • Individual
    • Genetic make up
    • Sex
    • Age
determinants of health2
Determinants of Health
  • Environment
    • Physical
      • Water
      • Sanitation
      • Air pollution
    • Social
      • Socio-economic status
      • Education
      • Social Capital
      • Culture
      • Gender
determinants of health3
Determinants of Health
  • Health Behaviors/Lifestyle
determinants of health4
Determinants of Health
  • Access to Health Services
    • Availability of services
    • Barriers to access
    • Quality and safety of services
    • Government Policies, Programs in Health Sector
key health indicators
Key health Indicators
  • Life Expectancy
  • Infant Mortality (under age 1)
    • Neonatal Mortality (younger than 28 days)
  • Maternal Mortality
  • Under Five or Child Mortality
  • Disability
  • Morbidity
trends in life expectancy by region
Trends in Life Expectancy, by Region

Life Expectancy at Birth, in Years

Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.

child mortality by wealth
Child Mortality by Wealth

Deaths Under Age 5 per 1,000 Live Births

Source: Population Reference Bureau, Population & Economic Development Linkages 2007 Data Sheet.

slide16

Map of Maternal Mortality, Worldwide

2000

Maternal deaths per 100,000 Live Births

Source: WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, 2004.

slide17

Maternal Mortality, by Region

2000 Estimates

Pregnancy and childbirth-related deaths per 100,000 live births

Source: WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA, 2004.

incidence and prevalence

Incidence

(new cases)

Prevalence

(existing cases)

Death, recovery

Incidence and Prevalence
  • Incidence – New Cases
  • Prevalence – Existing Cases
few words about disease classification
Few words about disease classification
  • Communicable diseases – caused by infection agent, pathogen, are spread from human to human, from animals to human (directly or not-directly)
  • Non-communicable – multiple causes, stroke, diabetes
  • Acute and chronic
  • Injuries
so what
So What?
  • Global health indicators are improving overall in the world
  • But not in all places, not for all social groups and not at the same speed
determinant of health joke of the day
Determinant of Health: Joke of the day

The Japanese eat very little fat and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

The Mexicans eat a lot of fat and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

The Chinese drink very little red wine and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

The Italians drink excessive amounts of red wine and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

The Germans drink a lot of beer and eat lots of sausages and fats, and suffer fewer heart attacks than the Canadians, British, Australians or Americans.

Conclusion: Eat and drink what you like. Speaking English is apparently what kills you 

thank you
THANK YOU !

? Questions ?

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