1760s approx. one-quarter of all British exports were being sent to the colonies
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1760s approx. one-quarter of all British exports were being sent to the colonies March 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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1760s approx. one-quarter of all British exports were being sent to the colonies March 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act. Non-importation appeared to have worked But boycotts, formal protest, and crowd actions were less important than it appeared. 1765 George III

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1760s approx. one-quarter of all British exports were being sent to the colonies March 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act.

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1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • 1760s approx. one-quarter of all British exports were being sent to the colonies

  • March 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act.

  • Non-importation appeared to have worked

  • But boycotts, formal protest, and crowd actions were less important than it appeared


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • 1765 George III

    • for reasons unrelated to colonial politics

  • replaced Greenville

  • Marquis Rockingham

    • new PM

    • had opposed the Stamp Act

  • Not because he believed Parliament lacked power to tax the colonies but because he thought the law unwise and divisive.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Rockingham proposed repeal

  • Linked to passage of the Declaratory Act

  • Asserted Parliament’s ability to tax and legislate for Britain’s American possessions “in all cases whatsoever.”

  • Colonists had accomplished their immediate aim, repeal of the Acts

  • But long-term prospects were unclear


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Summer of 1766, another change in the ministry in London brought Townsend to power

  • His actions revealed how fragile the colonists victory had been.

  • Townsend proposed new taxes in 1767

  • Tax was now to be levied on goods like

    • Paper

    • Glass

    • Tea


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Townsend Acts drew a quick response in America

  • One series of essays in particular

  • Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania

  • expressed a broad consensus

  • prominent lawyer John Dickinson


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Eventually all but four colonial newspapers printed Dickinson’s essays

  • In pamphlet form they went through seven American editions.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Dickinson contended that

  • Parliament could regulate colonial trade

  • But not exercise that power to raise revenue

  • Drew a distinction between trade regulation and unacceptable commercial taxation

  • Dickinson avoided the sticky issue of consent and how it affected colonial subordination to Parliament


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • After introduction of Townsend Act

  • Sons of Liberty and others once again made a deliberate effort to involve ordinary folk in the resistance movement

  • They urged colonists of all ranks and both sexes to sign agreements not to purchase or consume British products 


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • New consumerism that previously linked colonists economically

    • Now linked them politically as well 

  • “A Tradesman” wrote in a Philadelphia paper in 1770, it was essential

  • “for the Good of the Whole, to strengthen the Hands of the Patriotic Majority, by agreeing not to purchase British Goods.”


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • As primary purchasers

    • women played a central role in non-consumption

  • Boston – 300 women publicly promised not to buy or drink tea

    • “Sickness excepted.”

  • Wilmington, NC – Women burned their tea after walking through town in a solemn procession.

  • Women throughout the colonies exchanged recipes for tea substitutes or drank coffee instead.

  • Which leads us to the question

  • An American Revolution (for women?)


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • for European women in the colonies there was an ideal that they were supposed to fit into

    • private submissive good-wife

  • Era of the American Revolution provided a turning point in women’s history

  • Revolution did not destroy women’s separate realm of life

    • rather, threw it into convulsions


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • War years, pushed women into the turmoil and conflict of public events

  • women began to express themselves politically

  • Both individually and in groups


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Expressions of patriotism were novel and varied

  • For example:

  • Deborah Sampson Gannett

  • Enlisted in the fourth MA regiment and eventually received a pension for her service

  • After death

    • pension was passed on to her husband

  • Gannett’s role as a soldier

  • more an indication of the primitive nature of the rebel army then of any new option open to women


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Women played a traditional role as camp followers

  • Washington saw the presence of female camp followers as a liability

  • “The multitudes of women, especially those who are pregnant or have children, are a clog upon every movement.”

  • Yet army had almost none of the support staff that accompanies a modern military force

  • women were an essential auxiliary


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Congratulating the Ladies Association of Philadelphia – an elite group led by Esther De Berdt Reed - on their fund gathering, he awarded its members

  • “an equal place with any who have proceeded them in the walk of female patriotism.”

  • What Washington did appreciate however, was a modern role women adopted during the war

  • Raising money for the cause


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Besides affecting women’s household roles, the rebel cause sanctioned group activities for women

  • For over a decade, the gatherings of rebel women received publicity in the patriot press

  • Sometimes, women in groups created mobs scenes, as 500 women who, Abigail Adams reported, harassed and hounded a MA merchant for hounding coffee


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • More commonly, “association” took the form of sewing circles

  • Groups as large as 60 or 70 women or more convened to spin, weave, and sew – a political act

  • The most famous to sew is Betsy Ross, who it is thought may have sewed the first American flag


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Many women took great satisfaction in their new-found role.

  • When a New England satirist hinted that women discussed only “such trifling subject as Dress, Scandal and Detraction” during their spinning bees,

  • Three Boston women replied angrily: “Inferior in abusive sarcasm, in personal invective, in low wit, we glory to be, but inferior in veracity, sincerity, love of virtue, of liberty and of our country, we would not willingly be to any.”


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Women’s associations also

    • passed resolutions to patronize merchants who supported the rebel cause

    • and took oaths renounce marriage with men who did not support the patriot cause

  • The best known protest was the so-called Edenton Ladies Tea Party (it actually had little to do with tea.)


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • A group of prominent North Carolina women met

    • pledged to work for the public good and to support resistance to British measures

  • “A Society of Patriotic Ladies, at Edenton in North Carolina”

  • a 1775 British mezzotint that shows contempt and scorn for the colonial tactic of involving commoners and women in politics.

  • How?


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • It represents the signing of a non-importation (boycott) agreement by a meeting of well-to-do colonial women. The women are ugly, cavort freely with low men and drink from bowls.

  • Beneath the table a young child, untended by the women who are neglecting their duties, is licked by a dog that is simultaneously urinating on a tea caddy


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • At left, a women is pouring tea into a hat.

  • Document reads

  • "We the Ladys of Edenton do hereby solemnly engage not to conform to that Pernicious Custom of Drinking Tea, or that we the aforesaid Ladys will not promote ye wear of any manufacture from England, until such time as all Acts which tend to enslave our Native Country, shall be repealed."


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • War also disrupted families.

    • mixed effects.

  • Women were sometimes able to assume new authority and larger roles

    • for example, by taking over and managing farms and businesses

  • Women’s competent management of the home front, made some men pay more attention to their wives’ roles

    • a new view, since household work was customarily regarded as trivial and inconsequential


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • For enslaved women

    • war against England initially allowed an avenue to freedom

  • In November 1775 Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of VA, offered liberation to any slaves who fled to join the British army


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Some slave women

    • persuaded that the presence of British redcoats made it possible to run away without abandoning their families eagerly seized the opportunity

  • 23 slaves departed from Thomas Jefferson’s VA lands

  • over half were women and girls

    • all but 2 leaving in family groups

  • Many former slaves found freedom in Britain, Canada, and Africa


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Indian women in coastal nations found no real sources of hope or transformation in the Revolution

  • Warfare touched them when both sides competed for Indian loyalties

  • For women, it meant increased mobility, traditional war preparations, and the loss of husbands and son


Boston complaints continue

Boston complaints continue…

  • Origins of the event the patriots called the Boston Massacre

  • Repeated clashes between customs officers and the people of Massachusetts


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • At the same time

  • Sam Adams

  • Mass Legislature

    • Circular letter

  • Gov Bernard told

    • Dissolve legislature

  • Refusal

  • Closed down


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • June 1768

  • Customs officer seize the Liberty on suspicion of smuggling

  • Ship was owned by patriot leader John Hancock

  • Caused a riot in which prominent customs officers’ property was destroyed


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • The riot helped convince the ministry

    • troops were needed to maintain order

  • The assignment of two regiments of regulars to their city confirmed Bostonians’ worse fears

    • 14 & 29 regiments

    • September 1768

  • Redcoats constant reminder of oppressive potential of British power


Bostonians found themselves hemmed in

Bostonians found themselves hemmed in:

  • Boston Neck

    • entrance to the city

  • all travelers and goods checked.

  • Patrols roamed the city day and night

    • questioning and harassing people

  • Military concerts held on Boston Common

  • on Sunday


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Greatest potential for violence lay in

    • uneasy relationship between the soldiers and Boston laborers.

  • Many redcoats sought employment in their off-duty hours

    • competing for unskilled jobs with the city’s ordinary workingmen.

  • Soldiers ordered to show restraint

  • Feb 1770 Child killed


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Early on the evening of March 5, 1770, a crowd of laborers began throwing hard-packed snowball at a soldier guarding the Commons House

  • Hearing the noise a few reinforcements arrived

  • Goaded beyond endurance, the sentries acted against express orders to the contrary and fired on the crowd

  • Four killed and eight wounded, one of whom died a few days later.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Resistance leaders idealized the dead rioters as martyrs for the cause of liberty

  • A funeral was held

  • March 5th observed annually with patriotic orations.

  • Paul Revere’s engraving of the massacre was part of a propaganda campaign.

  • Revere wasted no time in capitalizing on the Massacre

    • Issued print three weeks after the incident


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Despite political benefits patriots derived from the massacre

    • unlikely that they approved of the crowd action that provoked it

  • Ever since destruction of Hutchinson’s house in August 1765

  • Men allied with the Sons of Liberty had supported orderly demonstrations

    • and expressed distaste for uncontrolled riots 


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Soldiers were defended by Josiah Quincy, Jr., & John Adams

    • both unwavering patriots.

  • Adams both condemned the action and criticized the presence of the soldiers

  • All but two of the accused men were acquitted, and those convicted were released after being branded on the thumb


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • The dog in the engraving is a symbol, meaning 

  • that the soldiers’ actions were “going to the dogs.” 


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • favorable outcome prevented London officials from taking further steps against Boston

  • No one yet advocated complete independence from the mother country

    • continued to acknowledge British identity and allegiance to George III

  • Patriots increasingly convinced they should seek freedom from parliamentary authority


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Fall 1772 North ministry began to implement the Townsend Act

    • provided for governors and judges to be paid from customs revenues

  •  Early November

  • voters at a Boston town meeting established a Committee of Correspondence

    • to publicize decisions by exchanging letters with other Massachusetts towns


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Such committees

    • eventually established throughout colonies

  • Next logical step in the organization of American resistance

  • Until 1772 protests largely confined to

    • Seacoast, primarily to major cities and towns

  • Samuel Adams realized time to widen geographic scope

    • involve the residents of the interior in the struggle


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • The statement of colonial rights prepared by the Bostonians declared that American had absolute rights to

  • life

  • Liberty

  • property.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  •  and that

  • “a British house of commons, should have a right, at pleasure, to give and grant the property of the colonists’ was “irreconcilable” with “the first principles of natural law and Justice . . . and of the British Constitution in particular.”

  • List of grievances

    • taxation without representation

    • presence of unnecessary troops and customs officers

    • use of imperial revenues to pay colonial officials

    • expanded jurisdiction of vice-admiralty courts

    • nature of the instructions given to American governors by their superiors in London  


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Document

    • printed as a pamphlet for distribution to the towns

  • exhibited none of the hesitation in colonial claims against Parliament in 1760s

  •  No longer were patriots

    • at least in Boston

  • preoccupied with defining the precise limits of parliamentary authority

  • Committed to a course that placed American rights first

    • loyalty to parliament a distant second.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • June 9, 1772, sloop Hannah left Newport for Providence

  • British Customs ship Gaspee gave chase

  • Hannah's Captain Lindsey deliberately lured her across the shallows off Namquid Point

    • Gaspee Point

  • left the British ship hard aground on a sandbar

    • unable to move until flood tide following day.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Upon arrival in Providence

  • Captain Lindsey reported the event to John Brown

    • prominent and respected merchant in Rhode Island

  • sent out town crier inviting all interested parties to meet at Sabin's Tavern

    • to plan the Gaspee's destruction

  • Under the leadership of Abraham Whipple

  • small band of patriots rowed eight longboats with muffled oars to the stranded ship

  • Lt. Dudingston and his crew were taken prisoner and removed to Pawtuxet Village.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Near daylight June 10th

  • Rhode Islanders set fire to the Gaspee

    • burning her to the waterline

    • powder magazine exploded.

  • Efforts of the Crown to learn the names of the culprits were unsuccessful, although a sizable reward had been offered.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Only one Townsend duties in effect by 1773 tax on tea

  • Consumption in the colonies had fallen from 900,000 lbs. in 1769 to 237,000 lbs. just 3 years later

    • Problems for East India Company


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • TEA ACT 1773

  • Net result

    • cheaper tea for American consumers.

  • Resistance leaders interpreted the new measure as a

    • device to make them admit Parliament’s right to tax them

  • less expensive tea would still be taxed under the Townsend law.  


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Residents of four cities designated to receive the first shipments of tea

    • prepared to respond to what they perceived as a new threat to freedom

  •  New York City

    • ships failed to arrive on schedule

  • Philadelphia

    • governor of Pennsylvania persuaded the captain to turn around and sail back to Britain

  • Charleston

    • tea was unloaded, stored under the direction of local tradesmen and later destroyed.


Back to boston

Back to Boston

  • Dartmouth

    • first of three ships arrived in the harbor on November 28, 1773.

  • Customs required cargo to be landed and appropriate duty paid by its owners within twenty days of a ship’s arrival

    • otherwise the cargo had to be seized by customs officers and sold at auction

  • After a series of mass meetings

  • Bostonians voted to post guards on the wharf to prevent the tea from being unloaded.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Thomas Hutchinson

    • refused to permit the vessels to leave the harbor

    • ordered tea unloaded

  • December 16

    • one day before the cargo would have been confiscated

  • five thousand people

    • nearly a third of the city’s population

  • crowded into Old South Church.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Meeting

    • chaired by Samuel Adams

  • made a final attempt to persuade Hutchinson to send the tea back to England

  • But governor remained adamant

  • In the early evening Adams reportedly announced

  • “that he could think of nothing further to be done – that they had done all they could for the Salvation of their Country.”

  • Cries than rang from the back of the crowd: “Boston harbor a tea-pot tonight! The Mohawks are come!”


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Small groups pushed their way out of the meeting.

  • By 9PM their work was done

    • 342 chests of tea worth approximately £10,000 pounds floated in the water  

  • Among “Indians” were

  • Paul Revere

  • Five masons, eleven carpenters builders, three leatherworkers, a blacksmith, two barbers, a coachmakers, and twelve apprentices  

  • also included four farmers from outside Boston, ten merchants, two doctors, a teacher, and a bookseller


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Mythology portrays a wild scene of Indian-painted, war-whooping colonists hurling tea chests into the harbor

  • In fact operation carried out quietly and without interference from officers and crew

  •  Once the cargo had been jettisoned

    • Indians quietly climbed back into their boats and rowed ashore.

  • Disciplined Sons of Liberty action

    • without disorder of any kind


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Response to Tea Party, in March 1774

  • Parliament adopted the first of four laws known as the Coercive Acts

    • or Intolerable Acts

  • June 1775, engraving reached colonies

    • copied and reproduced by Paul Revere


Coercive acts

Coercive Acts

  • Administration of Justice Act

    • May 20, 1774

  • Massachusetts Government Act

    • May 20, 1774

  • Boston Port Act

    • June 1, 1774

  • Quartering Act

    • June 2, 1774


Administration of justice act

Administration of Justice Act

  • British officials accused of capital crimes

    • In execution of duties suppressing riots or collecting lawful taxes

  • Sent to England for Trial

    • To avoid hostile local juries

  • Colonists - Murder Act


Massachusetts government act

Massachusetts Government Act

  • Abrogated the colony’s charter

  • Provided an unprecedented amount of royal control

  • limits were placed on the number of and powers of town meetings

    • essential ingredient of American self-government

  • Most elective offices in the colony to be filled with royal appointees

    • not with popularly elected officials.


Quartering act

Quartering Act

  • Amended Quartering acts of 1765 and 1766

  • Under previous legislation

  • colonies required to provide soldiers with living accommodations in public facilities

    • inns and taverns or unoccupied buildings.

  • Revised law authorized billeting soldiers in occupied facilities

    • including private homes.

  • Quartering Act applied to all of the American colonies, not Massachusetts alone.


Port act

Port Act

  • Closed port facilities in Boston

  • Until city reimbursed East India Company for the cost of the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party

    • and paid for damage caused to the customs offices

  • Crown insisted on recognition from Massachusetts that duties were within the purview of Parliament.


Port act1

Port Act

  • most odious of all Intolerable Acts

  • intended to sever radical Boston from the rest of America

    • had precisely the opposite effect.

  •  No danger of blockaded Boston starving

    • other New England colonies shipped foodstuffs into the city overland.

  • From as far as low-country South Carolina came rice

  • Delaware sent cash

  • And – most astoundingly – Quebec sent down huge amounts of wheat.  


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • 55 delegates from 12 colonies

    • Heeded call of the Massachusetts Assembly for a Continental Congress.

  •  Delegates convened in Philadelphia in September 1774

  • knew that any measures they adopted

  • likely to enjoy support among many of their fellow countrymen and countrywomen 


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • That summer

    • open meetings held throughout the colonies endorsed the idea of another non-importation pact.

  • Committees of Correspondence publicized these meetings so effectively that Americans everywhere knew about them

  •  Most of the congressional delegates were chosen at such local gatherings

    • governors had forbidden regular assemblies to conduct formal elections

  • Very act of designating delegates to attend the Congress involved Americans in open defiance of British authority.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Every February, across the country, candy, flowers, and gifts are exchanged between loved ones, all in the name of St. Valentine.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Worldwide estimated one billion valentine cards sent each year

  • Valentine's Day is the second largest card-sending holiday of the year

    • estimated 2.6 billion cards are sent for Christmas.)

  • In addition to the United States, Valentine's Day is celebrated in Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia.

  • But who is this mysterious saint and why do we celebrate this holiday?


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • The history of Valentine's Day -- and its patron saint -- is shrouded in mystery.

  • We do know that February has long been a month of romance.

  • There have been three different Valentines who became saints

  • All three were martyred


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • One legend contends that Valentine was a priest who served during the third century in Rome.

  • When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers than those with wives and families, he outlawed marriage for young men -- his crop of potential soldiers.

  • Valentine, realizing the injustice of the decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret.

  • When Valentine's actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death.


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • According to another legend, Valentine actually sent the first 'valentine' greeting himself.

  • While in prison, it is believed that Valentine fell in love with a young girl -- who may have been his jailor's daughter -- who visited him during his confinement.

  • Before his death, it is alleged that he wrote her a letter, which he signed 'From your Valentine,' an expression that is still in use today.


Pope gelasius declared february 14 st valentine s day around 498 a d

Pope Gelasius declared February 14St. Valentine's Day around 498 A.D.

  • The oldest known valentine still in existence today was a poem written by Charles, Duke of Orleans to his wife while he was imprisoned in the Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt.

  • The greeting, which was written in 1415, is part of the manuscript collection of the British Library in London, England


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • In Great Britain, Valentine's Day began to be popularly celebrated around the seventeenth century.

  • By the middle of the eighteenth century, it was common for friends and lovers in all social classes to exchange small tokens of affection or handwritten notes.

  • By the end of the century, printed cards began to replace written letters due to improvements in printing technology


1760s approx one quarter of all british exports were being sent to the colonies march 1766 parliament repealed the st

  • Cheaper postage rates also contributed to an increase in the popularity of sending Valentine's Day greetings.

  • Americans probably began exchanging hand-made valentines in the early 1700s.

  • In the 1840s, Esther A. Howland began to sell the first mass-produced valentines in America

  • Approximately 85 percent of all valentines are purchased by women.


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