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Chapter 1: The Science of Biology. Key Concept: What is the goal of science?. Standards: I&E: 1a-1g. 1-1: What Is Science?. 1-1. The goal of science is to: investigate and understand the natural world. explain events in the natural world.

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Chapter 1 the science of biology

Chapter 1: The Science of Biology

Key Concept:

What is the goal of science?

Standards: I&E: 1a-1g



  • The goal of science is to:

    • investigate and understand the natural world.

    • explain events in the natural world.

    • use those explanations to make useful predictions.

1-1



Scientists follow logical steps to 1 generate new ideas 2 answer questions and 3 draw conclusions
Scientists follow logical steps to: (1) generate new ideas, (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

These steps are called the Scientific Method.

1-2


Scientific method steps
Scientific Method steps: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

1. Observe, ask questions.

2. Formulate a hypothesis.

3. Design a controlled experiment.

4. Make careful observations.

5. Analyze and draw conclusions.

1-2


  • Thinking Like a Scientist (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

    • Scientific thinking begins with observation.

    • Observation is the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.

This leads to curiosity about something.

1-2


Hypothesis

Curiosity (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

HYPOTHESIS

A possible explanation for an event or set of observations.

- It is a prediction about the outcome of an experiment.

1-2


An "educated guess" (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

1-2


A hypothesis may be ruled out or confirmed. (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • A hypothesis must be testable.

  • They are tested by performing a controlled experiment.

1-2


Examples of hypotheses
Examples of hypotheses (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.:

  • Seeds need light to grow.

  • Hyenas are closely related to dogs.

(hyenas are more closely related to cats)


Hypotheses are often stated in if then statements
Hypotheses are often stated in “if - then” statements. (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • If hyenas are related to dogs, then genetic testing should show this.

  • If my dog likes brand “A” of dog food, then he will eat more of it.

1-2


What is a controlled experiment
What is a (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.controlled experiment?

  • Two identical experiments:

  • Variables: factors which change or can affect things.

  • Control: setup where no change is made.

1-2


Redi’s Experiment (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

1

2

Experiments must be repeatable!

1-2


Experiment
EXPERIMENT (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

Next step is to record and analyze results:

Data

1-2


  • Next step (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.: Forming a Conclusion

    • Scientists use the data from an experiment to evaluate a hypothesis and draw a valid conclusion.

    • Redi’s results supported the hypothesis that maggots were produced by flies, not spontaneous generation.


The conclusion may or may not support the hypothesis
The conclusion (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.may, or may not support the hypothesis.

If not, hypothesis can be changed.

1-2


All experiments have variables variable factor that can change in an experiment
All experiments have variables. (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.Variable= factor that can change in an experiment.

1-2


Examples of variables
Examples of variables: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Temperature

  • Length of time

  • Type of dog food

Most scientific experiments are designed to consider only 1 variable.


Other variables must be controlled. The (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.control variable stays the same, while the manipulated variable changes.

1-2


Example we want to determine what makes the best bread
Example: We want to determine what makes the best bread. (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.


Possible manipulated variables you would pick 1
Possible Manipulated Variables: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.(you would pick 1)

  • Amount of sugar

  • Presence of salt

  • Oven temperature

  • Baking time


What can be controlled
What can be (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.controlled:

  • Amount of water

  • Amount of yeast

  • Oven temperature

  • Baking time


With sugar (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

No sugar

(1 variable only!)

Another

example


A hypothesis that is supported by many experiments done over a period of time is called a theory

A hypothesis that is supported by (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.many experiments done over a period of time is called a Theory.

Theories are not facts, but probable explanations.

1-2


Examples of theories
Examples of theories (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Theory of evolution

  • Theory of plate tectonics

  • The cell theory

Theories are changeable and expandable, and most importantly, theories are FALSIFIABLE.

1-2


Observation (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

Curiosity

Experiment

Hypothesis

Experiment

Experiment

Theory

Experiment

(If all exp’ts support hypothesis)

1-2


1–2 (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • In an experiment, the variable that is deliberately changed is called the

    • control.

    • manipulated variable.

    • responding variable.

    • constant control


1–2 (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • The mistaken belief that living organisms can arise from nonliving matter is called

    • biogenesis.

    • Pasteur's theory.

    • spontaneous generation.

    • Spallanzani’s hypothesis.


1–2 (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Which of the following was the manipulated variable in Redi’s experiment?

    • the kind of meat used

    • the temperature the jars were kept at

    • the gauze covering on some jars

    • the kind of fly that visited the jars


1–2 (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations is a

    • hypothesis.

    • variable.

    • control.

    • theory.


1–2 (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • A scientific explanation does not become a theory until

    • a majority of scientists agree with it.

    • it has been supported by evidence from numerous investigations and observations.

    • it is first proposed as an explanation.

    • it is published in a textbook.


Scientific law
Scientific Law (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • A theory attempts to explain everything about something, including its cause.

  • A scientific law describes something that is always true. It does not explain why, only that it does.

2-1


Examples of scientific laws
Examples of Scientific Laws: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Law of gravity: any 2 objects attract each other. (doesn’t say anything about why)

  • In biology, Law of Dominance: a dominant trait will show itself when a dominant and recessive trait are mixed.

2-1


Let s experiment
Let’s experiment! (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

Pill bug, sow bug, roly polies

Phylum Crustacea – related to crabs, shrimp

We want to observe their behavior and see what environment they prefer.

Manipulated variable = ?

Control variables = ?


For example: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

Manipulated variable

= moisture

Hypothesis: If pill bugs prefer moist environments, then they will move to the side of a choice chamber which has more moisture.


  • Wink Dinkersen 8/20/09 Per. 3 (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Title: Investigation of Roly Poly Behavior

  • Hypothesis: If roly polies prefer ______ environments, they will move toward the _____ side of a choice chamber.

  • Objective: To investigate . . .

  • Materials:

  • Choice chamber

  • 10 roly polies

  • paper circles

  • Stopwatch

  • Data table

  • Anything else

  • Procedure:

  • Make a choice chamber with 2 petri dishes

  • Line dishes with filter paper

  • Add 20 drops of water to one side

  • Count out 10 roly polies

  • Place 5 in each side of the choice chamber

  • Data table:

  • Graph on separate pg.

  • Conclusion:


Possible manipulated variables
Possible (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.manipulated variables:

(Each lab group picks one)

  • Moisture (dry vs. moist)

  • Light (light vs. dark)

  • Temperature

  • Color

  • Vinegar vs. water

  • Other?


Develop a hypothesis
Develop a hypothesis: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • If pill bugs prefer _____________ then they will move to the ______________ side of the choice chamber.

Dark

Dark


Design an experiment
Design an experiment: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • State the objective of your experiment.

    Objective: to determine _____________________________.


Design an experiment1
Design an experiment: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • List all the materials you will use.

    • Choice chamber

    • 10 roly polies

    • Paper towel

    • Timer

    • Data sheet

    • Whatever you need for your manipulated variable


Light vs dark aluminum foil to cover one side
Light vs. Dark (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.:Aluminum foil to cover one side.

Moist vs. Dry:Moist paper towel, dry paper towel.

Warm vs. Cold:Ice pack for one side, book for other.

Color:Colored paper for each side.

Vinegar vs. Water:drops of vinegar for one side, drops of water for other.


Write your procedure in detail so that someone else could follow it
Write your procedure (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.in detail so that someone else could follow it:

1. Gather choice chamber (CC) and other materials to run expt.

2. cut out paper disk to fit in each side of CC.

3. Count out 10 roly polies.

4. Place 5 roly polies in each side of CC.

5. . . .

10. We will keep __?__, __?__, __?__,

the same.

Also tell me what the control variables are!


Lastly
Lastly: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Make a data sheet

  • Assign roles (timer, recorder, etc.)

  • Do your experiment!


Table 1. The number of roly polies in each side over time. (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.


Measurements
Measurements: (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Count how many bugs in each side every 60 seconds for 15 minutes.

Do NOT harm or tease the creatures!


On paper 1 paper turned in per lab group
On paper (1 paper turned in per lab group): (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Name, date, title of experiment

  • Hypothesis

  • Objective

  • List of materials

  • Outline of procedure

  • Data table

  • Area for graph of data

  • Conclusion


  • Name: Per. 3 (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Title: Investigation of Roly Poly Behavior

  • Hypothesis: If roly polies prefer moist environments, they will move toward the wet side of a choice chamber.

  • Objective: To investigate . . .

  • Materials:

  • Choice chamber

  • 10 roly polies

  • Stopwatch

  • Data table

  • Anything else you think you’ll need

  • Procedure:

  • Make a choice chamber with 2 petri dishes

  • Line dishes with filter paper

  • Add 20 drops of water to one side

  • Count out 10 roly polies

  • Place 5 in each side of the choice chamber

  • Data table:

  • Graph on separate pg.

  • Conclusion:


Conclusion

Conclusion (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

Data from this lab showed that roly polies preferred the ____________ environment over the ___________ environment. I accept/reject my hypothesis that __________________________.


  • Rubric (50 pts) (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Hypothesis: (5)

  • Objective: (5)

  • Materials: (5)

  • Procedure: (10)

  • Data table: (10)

  • Graph on separate pg. (10)

  • Conclusion: (5)


  • Honors (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.:

  • Introduction

    • 1. Intro

    • 2. Hypothesis

    • 3. Objective

  • Procedures (brief)

  • Results, including graph and data table.

  • Conclusion

20 points each = 80 points total


Teacher notes
Teacher notes (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

  • Limit trt #s to 5 or so. Tell alpha groups to agree on 1 trt so they can work together as group.

  • Don’t try electricity –waste of time.

  • Watch glitter


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