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Chapter 1: The Science of Biology. Key Concept: What is the goal of science?. Standards: I&E: 1a-1g. 1-1: What Is Science?. 1-1. The goal of science is to: investigate and understand the natural world. explain events in the natural world.

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chapter 1 the science of biology

Chapter 1: The Science of Biology

Key Concept:

What is the goal of science?

Standards: I&E: 1a-1g

slide3

The goal of science is to:

    • investigate and understand the natural world.
    • explain events in the natural world.
    • use those explanations to make useful predictions.

1-1

scientists follow logical steps to 1 generate new ideas 2 answer questions and 3 draw conclusions
Scientists follow logical steps to: (1) generate new ideas, (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

These steps are called the Scientific Method.

1-2

scientific method steps
Scientific Method steps:

1. Observe, ask questions.

2. Formulate a hypothesis.

3. Design a controlled experiment.

4. Make careful observations.

5. Analyze and draw conclusions.

1-2

slide7

Thinking Like a Scientist

      • Scientific thinking begins with observation.
      • Observation is the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.

This leads to curiosity about something.

1-2

hypothesis

Curiosity

HYPOTHESIS

A possible explanation for an event or set of observations.

- It is a prediction about the outcome of an experiment.

1-2

slide10

A hypothesis may be ruled out or confirmed.

  • A hypothesis must be testable.
  • They are tested by performing a controlled experiment.

1-2

examples of hypotheses
Examples of hypotheses:
  • Seeds need light to grow.
  • Hyenas are closely related to dogs.

(hyenas are more closely related to cats)

hypotheses are often stated in if then statements
Hypotheses are often stated in “if - then” statements.
  • If hyenas are related to dogs, then genetic testing should show this.
  • If my dog likes brand “A” of dog food, then he will eat more of it.

1-2

what is a controlled experiment
What is a controlled experiment?
  • Two identical experiments:
  • Variables: factors which change or can affect things.
  • Control: setup where no change is made.

1-2

slide16

Redi’s Experiment

1

2

Experiments must be repeatable!

1-2

experiment
EXPERIMENT

Next step is to record and analyze results:

Data

1-2

slide18

Next step: Forming a Conclusion

    • Scientists use the data from an experiment to evaluate a hypothesis and draw a valid conclusion.
    • Redi’s results supported the hypothesis that maggots were produced by flies, not spontaneous generation.
the conclusion may or may not support the hypothesis
The conclusion may, or may not support the hypothesis.

If not, hypothesis can be changed.

1-2

examples of variables
Examples of variables:
  • Temperature
  • Length of time
  • Type of dog food

Most scientific experiments are designed to consider only 1 variable.

slide22

Other variables must be controlled. The control variable stays the same, while the manipulated variable changes.

1-2

possible manipulated variables you would pick 1
Possible Manipulated Variables:(you would pick 1)
  • Amount of sugar
  • Presence of salt
  • Oven temperature
  • Baking time
what can be controlled
What can be controlled:
  • Amount of water
  • Amount of yeast
  • Oven temperature
  • Baking time
slide26

With sugar

No sugar

(1 variable only!)

Another

example

a hypothesis that is supported by many experiments done over a period of time is called a theory

A hypothesis that is supported by many experiments done over a period of time is called a Theory.

Theories are not facts, but probable explanations.

1-2

examples of theories
Examples of theories
  • Theory of evolution
  • Theory of plate tectonics
  • The cell theory

Theories are changeable and expandable, and most importantly, theories are FALSIFIABLE.

1-2

slide30

Observation

Curiosity

Experiment

Hypothesis

Experiment

Experiment

Theory

Experiment

(If all exp’ts support hypothesis)

1-2

slide31
1–2
  • In an experiment, the variable that is deliberately changed is called the
    • control.
    • manipulated variable.
    • responding variable.
    • constant control
slide32
1–2
  • The mistaken belief that living organisms can arise from nonliving matter is called
    • biogenesis.
    • Pasteur\'s theory.
    • spontaneous generation.
    • Spallanzani’s hypothesis.
slide33
1–2
  • Which of the following was the manipulated variable in Redi’s experiment?
    • the kind of meat used
    • the temperature the jars were kept at
    • the gauze covering on some jars
    • the kind of fly that visited the jars
slide34
1–2
  • A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations is a
    • hypothesis.
    • variable.
    • control.
    • theory.
slide35
1–2
  • A scientific explanation does not become a theory until
    • a majority of scientists agree with it.
    • it has been supported by evidence from numerous investigations and observations.
    • it is first proposed as an explanation.
    • it is published in a textbook.
scientific law
Scientific Law
  • A theory attempts to explain everything about something, including its cause.
  • A scientific law describes something that is always true. It does not explain why, only that it does.

2-1

examples of scientific laws
Examples of Scientific Laws:
  • Law of gravity: any 2 objects attract each other. (doesn’t say anything about why)
  • In biology, Law of Dominance: a dominant trait will show itself when a dominant and recessive trait are mixed.

2-1

let s experiment
Let’s experiment!

Pill bug, sow bug, roly polies

Phylum Crustacea – related to crabs, shrimp

We want to observe their behavior and see what environment they prefer.

Manipulated variable = ?

Control variables = ?

slide39

For example:

Manipulated variable

= moisture

Hypothesis: If pill bugs prefer moist environments, then they will move to the side of a choice chamber which has more moisture.

slide40

Wink Dinkersen 8/20/09 Per. 3

  • Title: Investigation of Roly Poly Behavior
  • Hypothesis: If roly polies prefer ______ environments, they will move toward the _____ side of a choice chamber.
  • Objective: To investigate . . .
  • Materials:
  • Choice chamber
  • 10 roly polies
  • paper circles
  • Stopwatch
  • Data table
  • Anything else
  • Procedure:
  • Make a choice chamber with 2 petri dishes
  • Line dishes with filter paper
  • Add 20 drops of water to one side
  • Count out 10 roly polies
  • Place 5 in each side of the choice chamber
  • Data table:
  • Graph on separate pg.
  • Conclusion:
possible manipulated variables
Possible manipulated variables:

(Each lab group picks one)

  • Moisture (dry vs. moist)
  • Light (light vs. dark)
  • Temperature
  • Color
  • Vinegar vs. water
  • Other?
develop a hypothesis
Develop a hypothesis:
  • If pill bugs prefer _____________ then they will move to the ______________ side of the choice chamber.

Dark

Dark

design an experiment
Design an experiment:
  • State the objective of your experiment.

Objective: to determine _____________________________.

design an experiment1
Design an experiment:
  • List all the materials you will use.
    • Choice chamber
    • 10 roly polies
    • Paper towel
    • Timer
    • Data sheet
    • Whatever you need for your manipulated variable
light vs dark aluminum foil to cover one side
Light vs. Dark:Aluminum foil to cover one side.

Moist vs. Dry:Moist paper towel, dry paper towel.

Warm vs. Cold:Ice pack for one side, book for other.

Color:Colored paper for each side.

Vinegar vs. Water:drops of vinegar for one side, drops of water for other.

write your procedure in detail so that someone else could follow it
Write your procedure in detail so that someone else could follow it:

1. Gather choice chamber (CC) and other materials to run expt.

2. cut out paper disk to fit in each side of CC.

3. Count out 10 roly polies.

4. Place 5 roly polies in each side of CC.

5. . . .

10. We will keep __?__, __?__, __?__,

the same.

Also tell me what the control variables are!

lastly
Lastly:
  • Make a data sheet
  • Assign roles (timer, recorder, etc.)
  • Do your experiment!
measurements
Measurements:
  • Count how many bugs in each side every 60 seconds for 15 minutes.

Do NOT harm or tease the creatures!

on paper 1 paper turned in per lab group
On paper (1 paper turned in per lab group):
  • Name, date, title of experiment
  • Hypothesis
  • Objective
  • List of materials
  • Outline of procedure
  • Data table
  • Area for graph of data
  • Conclusion
slide51

Name: Per. 3

  • Title: Investigation of Roly Poly Behavior
  • Hypothesis: If roly polies prefer moist environments, they will move toward the wet side of a choice chamber.
  • Objective: To investigate . . .
  • Materials:
  • Choice chamber
  • 10 roly polies
  • Stopwatch
  • Data table
  • Anything else you think you’ll need
  • Procedure:
  • Make a choice chamber with 2 petri dishes
  • Line dishes with filter paper
  • Add 20 drops of water to one side
  • Count out 10 roly polies
  • Place 5 in each side of the choice chamber
  • Data table:
  • Graph on separate pg.
  • Conclusion:
conclusion

Conclusion

Data from this lab showed that roly polies preferred the ____________ environment over the ___________ environment. I accept/reject my hypothesis that __________________________.

slide54

Rubric (50 pts)

  • Hypothesis: (5)
  • Objective: (5)
  • Materials: (5)
  • Procedure: (10)
  • Data table: (10)
  • Graph on separate pg. (10)
  • Conclusion: (5)
slide55

Honors:

  • Introduction
    • 1. Intro
    • 2. Hypothesis
    • 3. Objective
  • Procedures (brief)
  • Results, including graph and data table.
  • Conclusion

20 points each = 80 points total

teacher notes
Teacher notes
  • Limit trt #s to 5 or so. Tell alpha groups to agree on 1 trt so they can work together as group.
  • Don’t try electricity –waste of time.
  • Watch glitter
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