Organization of the human body
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Organization of the Human Body. Chap 46. Cell specialization. Zygote Forms three germ layers Ectoderm; outher layer, skin & nervous system Mesoderm: middle layer, muscles, bones and connective tissue Endoderm: Inner layer, organs. Germ Layers. Cell specialization. Tissue types

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Organization of the Human Body

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Organization of the Human Body

Chap 46


Cell specialization

  • Zygote

    • Forms three germ layers

      • Ectoderm; outher layer, skin & nervous system

      • Mesoderm: middle layer, muscles, bones and connective tissue

      • Endoderm: Inner layer, organs


Germ Layers


Cell specialization

  • Tissue types

    • Connective: binds and supports other structures (bones, elastins)

      • Function: gives strength to softer tissues

      • Origin: mesoderm


Connective Tissue


Cell specialization (cont)

  • Muscle

    • Function: movement

    • Origin: mesoderm


Muscle tissue


Cell specialization (cont)

  • Nerve

    • Function: communication, coordination, information

    • Origin: ectoderm

    • Types of nervous transmission

      • Afferent: sensory

      • Efferent: motor


Nerve Tissue


Afferent

Efferent

Afferent vs Efferent nerves


Tissues make organs


Organs make up Organ systems


Organ systems (cont)


Skeletal System

  • Endoskeleton

    • Advantages

      • Flexible

      • No molting

      • Greatest support with least weight

    • Disadvantages

      • less protection than exo-

      • Depend on nervous system for protection


  • Skeleton Functions

    • Support

    • Muscle attachment

    • Protection: organs and CNS

    • Store minerals

    • Marrow storage


  • Bone development

    • Long bones

      • Develop from cartilage: Ossification

      • Remove minerals from blood

        • Calcium phosphate ions

        • Calcium carbonate ions

      • Continues throughout childhood


Long bones


Long bone Developement


  • Bone development (cont)

    • Flat bones: cranium, sternum, jaw

      • Develop from membrane layers

      • Sutures: joints in bones

      • Bones not fused in baby: allows brain to grow


Flatbones


Bone Structure

  • Diaphysis: shaft of bone

  • Epiphysis: ends of long bones

  • Epiphyseal line: growth line/plate

  • Haversian system

    • Haversian canal: channels through bones

    • Functions: delivers blood to bone, nutrients, osteocytes

  • Marrow

    • Red

      • Found: flat bones, epiphyseal portion of long bones

      • Function: RBC, WBC (erythrocytes, leucocytes)

    • Yellow

      • Found: central cavity of long bones (diaphysis)

      • Function: fat storage (in emergency may produce RBC’s


Bone Structure


Buffalo Humerus- Identify the parts of the long bone


Joints

  • Types

    • Hinge: elbow

    • Ball and socket: hip

    • Angular: wrist

    • Gliding: vertebrae

    • Pivotal: Atlas and Axis

      • Top 2 vertebrae that allow head rotation

  • Attachment

    • Bone to bone: ligaments

    • Muscle to bone: tendons


Ligaments and Tendons


Muscle systems

  • Muscle tissue

    • Made of cells that are able to shorten


Muscle fibers

  • Fibers are single cells

  • Energy provided by ATP (lots of mitochondria)

  • Bundle of fibers is a motor unit


Muscle structure- made of may fibers


Muscle contraction videos

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CepeYFvqmk4

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NRzJjx3ANuE


Three Muscle types

  • (get notes from descriptions of pictures)


Identify these Muscle types


Flexors vs Extensors

  • Flexor- pulls bone toward each other (flex)

  • Extensors- pulls bones away from each other (extend)

  • Work in opposites- each flexor has and extensor to control the range of motion


Heart Contractions

  • Sinoatrial node (pacemaker): in right atrium, impulse start here and causes contraction

  • Atrioventricular node: Causes ventricle contraction

  • Atria contract, then ventricles, moves right to left


Heart contractions


Electrocardiograms (EKG/ECG)

Figure 8.15B, C


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