Organization of the human body
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Organization of the Human Body. Chap 46. Cell specialization. Zygote Forms three germ layers Ectoderm; outher layer, skin & nervous system Mesoderm: middle layer, muscles, bones and connective tissue Endoderm: Inner layer, organs. Germ Layers. Cell specialization. Tissue types

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Organization of the Human Body

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Organization of the human body

Organization of the Human Body

Chap 46


Cell specialization

Cell specialization

  • Zygote

    • Forms three germ layers

      • Ectoderm; outher layer, skin & nervous system

      • Mesoderm: middle layer, muscles, bones and connective tissue

      • Endoderm: Inner layer, organs


Germ layers

Germ Layers


Cell specialization1

Cell specialization

  • Tissue types

    • Connective: binds and supports other structures (bones, elastins)

      • Function: gives strength to softer tissues

      • Origin: mesoderm


Connective tissue

Connective Tissue


Cell specialization cont

Cell specialization (cont)

  • Muscle

    • Function: movement

    • Origin: mesoderm


Muscle tissue

Muscle tissue


Cell specialization cont1

Cell specialization (cont)

  • Nerve

    • Function: communication, coordination, information

    • Origin: ectoderm

    • Types of nervous transmission

      • Afferent: sensory

      • Efferent: motor


Nerve tissue

Nerve Tissue


Afferent vs efferent nerves

Afferent

Efferent

Afferent vs Efferent nerves


Tissues make organs

Tissues make organs


Organs make up organ systems

Organs make up Organ systems


Organ systems cont

Organ systems (cont)


Skeletal system

Skeletal System

  • Endoskeleton

    • Advantages

      • Flexible

      • No molting

      • Greatest support with least weight

    • Disadvantages

      • less protection than exo-

      • Depend on nervous system for protection


Organization of the human body

  • Skeleton Functions

    • Support

    • Muscle attachment

    • Protection: organs and CNS

    • Store minerals

    • Marrow storage


Organization of the human body

  • Bone development

    • Long bones

      • Develop from cartilage: Ossification

      • Remove minerals from blood

        • Calcium phosphate ions

        • Calcium carbonate ions

      • Continues throughout childhood


Long bones

Long bones


Long bone developement

Long bone Developement


Organization of the human body

  • Bone development (cont)

    • Flat bones: cranium, sternum, jaw

      • Develop from membrane layers

      • Sutures: joints in bones

      • Bones not fused in baby: allows brain to grow


Flat bones

Flatbones


Bone structure

Bone Structure

  • Diaphysis: shaft of bone

  • Epiphysis: ends of long bones

  • Epiphyseal line: growth line/plate

  • Haversian system

    • Haversian canal: channels through bones

    • Functions: delivers blood to bone, nutrients, osteocytes

  • Marrow

    • Red

      • Found: flat bones, epiphyseal portion of long bones

      • Function: RBC, WBC (erythrocytes, leucocytes)

    • Yellow

      • Found: central cavity of long bones (diaphysis)

      • Function: fat storage (in emergency may produce RBC’s


Bone structure1

Bone Structure


Buffalo humerus identify the parts of the long bone

Buffalo Humerus- Identify the parts of the long bone


Joints

Joints

  • Types

    • Hinge: elbow

    • Ball and socket: hip

    • Angular: wrist

    • Gliding: vertebrae

    • Pivotal: Atlas and Axis

      • Top 2 vertebrae that allow head rotation

  • Attachment

    • Bone to bone: ligaments

    • Muscle to bone: tendons


Ligaments and tendons

Ligaments and Tendons


Muscle systems

Muscle systems

  • Muscle tissue

    • Made of cells that are able to shorten


Muscle fibers

Muscle fibers

  • Fibers are single cells

  • Energy provided by ATP (lots of mitochondria)

  • Bundle of fibers is a motor unit


Muscle structure made of may fibers

Muscle structure- made of may fibers


Muscle contraction videos

Muscle contraction videos

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CepeYFvqmk4

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NRzJjx3ANuE


Three muscle types

Three Muscle types

  • (get notes from descriptions of pictures)


Identify these muscle types

Identify these Muscle types


Flexors vs extensors

Flexors vs Extensors

  • Flexor- pulls bone toward each other (flex)

  • Extensors- pulls bones away from each other (extend)

  • Work in opposites- each flexor has and extensor to control the range of motion


Heart contractions

Heart Contractions

  • Sinoatrial node (pacemaker): in right atrium, impulse start here and causes contraction

  • Atrioventricular node: Causes ventricle contraction

  • Atria contract, then ventricles, moves right to left


Organization of the human body

Heart contractions


Organization of the human body

Electrocardiograms (EKG/ECG)

Figure 8.15B, C


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