International harmonized research activities intelligent transport systems
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International Harmonized Research Activities: Intelligent Transport Systems. Y. Ian Noy , Ph.D., P.Eng., CPE Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate Transport Canada 330 Sparks St.., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0N5 Tel: (613) 998-2268 Fax: (613) 998-4831 [email protected]

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International Harmonized Research Activities: Intelligent Transport Systems

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International harmonized research activities intelligent transport systems

International Harmonized Research Activities:Intelligent Transport Systems

Y. Ian Noy, Ph.D., P.Eng., CPE

Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate

Transport Canada

330 Sparks St.., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0N5

Tel: (613) 998-2268 Fax: (613) 998-4831 [email protected]

TransportCanada


Purpose

Purpose

  • To introduce IHRA-ITS work

  • To explore opportunities to liaise with GRRF in areas of common interest


Intelligent transport systems

Positioning & tracking

Digital maps

Communication links

Microprocessors

Image processors

Information databases

Traffic management

Traffic monitoring

Smart cards

Automated aids

Intelligent Transport Systems

Transportation Objectives

  • Reduce congestion

  • Improve safety

  • Increase efficiency

  • Improve comfort

  • Improve transit services

  • Reduce fuel consumption

  • Reduce emissions


Vehicle based driver assistance and crash avoidance systems

Vehicle-Based Driver Assistance and Crash Avoidance Systems

  • Vision enhancement & visual range warning

  • Intelligent speed adaptation

  • Adaptive cruise control

  • Collision warning (e.g., lane departure, rear-end, lane change, intersection)

  • Fatigue/impairment warning

  • Pavement monitoring and friction warning

  • Vehicle Stability Warning and Assistance

  • Emergency reporting and response

  • Backing and merging aids


Levels of automation

Levels of Automation

  • Information

  • Warning

  • Driver assistance (active pedal)

  • Partial control of vehicle functions (steering, stop&go)

  • Complete control of vehicle (AHS)


Rationalizing automation

Rationalizing Automation

  • Each level has unique safety issues

  • Each level must coexist with other levels

  • Progression from one level to next is not incremental– it represents a radical change in driving task


Aspects of system safety

Aspects of System Safety

  • System Reliability

    Reliability of hardware and software, the propensity for malfunction and the potential to go into a dangerous and/or unanticipated safety mode

  • Human Machine Interaction (HMI)

    Key issues are function allocation, driver-vehicle integration and user interface design

  • Overall Traffic System

    The aggregate effect on the traffic system as a whole


Its safety impact framework

ITS: Safety Impact Framework

Positive

Negative

Direct

+

-

Indirect

+

-


Direct safety benefits

Positive

Negative

Direct

+

-

Indirect

+

-

Direct Safety Benefits

  • Reduction of crash risk through

    • on-board CA systems

    • road-side CA systems

    • tolerance for driver/system errors

  • Mitigation of crash consequences through improved emergency response


Indirect safety benefits

Positive

Negative

Direct

+

-

Indirect

+

-

Indirect Safety Benefits

  • Reduced exposure (optimized routes and trip lengths, and greater choice of mode)

  • Reduced exposure to unauthorized use (elicense)

  • Reduced traffic variance and conflicts (through better traffic management and improved interaction between driver and other road users)

  • Reduced driver stress and fatigue


Direct safety risks

Positive

Negative

Direct

+

-

Indirect

+

-

Direct Safety Risks

  • Driver distraction

  • Driver overload

  • Driver confusion

  • Reduced situation awareness

  • Lack of trust/acceptance due to false or nuisance alarms

  • Increased discomfort, stress

  • Command effect


Indirect safety risks

Positive

Negative

Direct

+

-

Indirect

+

-

Indirect Safety Risks

  • Behavioural adaptation

  • Increased travel (pleasurable)

  • Loss of skill & negative transfer

  • Violation of expectation (by non-users)

  • Collision migration (MV to SV, to other users, etc.)


Its safety or is it

+

Driving Task

ITS

Collisions

-

ITS Safety, or IS IT?

  • ITS technology is safety neutral - Its implementation is safety critical

  • Safety impact depends largely on the extent to which the system supports users’ needs, and is compatible with human capabilities and limitations


Government s role

Government’s Role

  • Discourage technologies/implementations that are likely to have an adverse effect on safety

  • Encourage implementation of technologies that are likely to have safety benefits


Enhanced safety of vehicles esv international harmonized research activities

the Netherlands

Poland

Sweden

U.K.

U.S.A.

EC

EESV

Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV):International Harmonized Research Activities

  • Australia

  • Canada

  • France

  • Germany

  • Hungary

  • Italy

  • Japan


Esv ihra working groups

ESV: IHRA Working Groups

  • Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Advanced Offset Frontal Crash Protection

  • Pedestrian Safety

  • Biomechanics

  • Vehicle Compatibility

  • Side Impact


Ihra its objectives

IHRA-ITS : Objectives

  • To coordinate international policy-oriented research to minimize the potential adverse consequences of on-board ITS technologies.

  • To develop procedures for the evaluation of safety of in-vehicle information, control and communication systems.

  • To provide an international view of the state of research into understanding the safety impact of driver workload and distraction.


Scope

Scope

  • includes original and aftermarket on-board information, control and communication systems, including

    • driver assistance

    • collision warning and avoidance

    • infotainment


Summary of activities

Summary of Activities

  • Conceptual Framework

  • Workshops

  • Survey of current research

  • Priority Projects

    http://199.79.179.92/ITS/ITS.html


Priority projects

Priority Projects

  • Development of a harmonized safety evaluation methodology framework

  • Driver understanding and expectation of ITS systems

  • Human factors principles checklist

  • Normative data on naturalistic driving behavior

  • Simulator reference test scenarios

  • Improved secondary task methodology for evaluating safety effects of driver workload

  • Harmonization and validation of surrogate safety measures


Importance of its safety research

Importance of ITS Safety Research

  • Expands ESV’s role into crash avoidance

  • Elaborates the role of governments with respect to ITS safety

  • ITS safety is currently unregulated; therefore, there is a reasonable prospect for harmonized policies based on shared scientific understanding of the issues


Ihra wp 29 liaison

IHRA-WP.29 Liaison

  • IHRA research focus

    • Summarize state of knowledge

    • Coordinate joint research

    • Develop test procedures

  • WP.29 to identify regulatory needs and priorities; IHRA to coordinate the regulatory development research to support WP.29 work program


Recommendations vis wp 29

Recommendations vis WP.29

  • Develop strategy for global regulation development for on-board ITS

    • ST – coordinate among existing GR’s, lead?

    • LT – create new GR?

  • Utilize IHRA-ITS WG as Informal Group for ITS-related matters

  • Coordinate with WP.1 and WP.15 on ITS-related matters (ISA)


Possible short term plan

Possible Short Term Plan

  • GRRF – Collision avoidance, driver assistance (ACC, ESP), ISA

  • GRRF/GRE?– Reliability (Annex 18)

  • GRE/GRSG? – Collision and drowsiness warning, vision enhancement, maneuvering aids

  • GRSG – Infotainment, navigation

  • GRSP – Collision mitigation?


Grrf existing work plan

GRRF – Existing Work Plan

  • Illumination of stop lamps

  • Handling and stability of vehicles (R111)

  • Steering equipment (R79)

  • Braking compatibility of heavy goods vehicles

  • Tires and wheels (smart?)


Grrf future

GRRF - Future

  • Driver Assistance Systems

    • ISA

    • ACC, EBS, ABS

    • ESP

    • Drive-by-wire steering

    • Single pedal for accelerator/brake

    • Active pedals, steering wheels

  • Collision Avoidance Systems

    • Rear-end collision avoidance, intersection CA, etc.


Its roundtable

ITS Roundtable

  • Technology outlook

    • Driver assistance

    • Collision warning and avoidance

  • Government perspective (US, EC, IHRA, Japan)

  • Research Needs

    • US IVI

    • JARI

    • EC FPV, VI


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