Normal menstruation. Rhythm: regular from 21-35 daysDuration: 3-7 daysAmount: between 30-50 mls Flow: non clotted fluid blood. Disorders in rhythm, amount or duration. MenorrhagiaPolymenorrheaOligomenorrheaMetrorrhagia . Causes of Menorrhagia. DUBPelvic pathologyMedicalClotting defect. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
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1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Dr. Mashael Shebaili
Asst. Prof. & Consultant
2. Normal menstruation Rhythm: regular from 21-35 days
Duration: 3-7 days
Amount: between 30-50 mls
Flow: non clotted fluid blood
3. Disorders in rhythm, amount or duration Menorrhagia
4. Causes of Menorrhagia DUB
5. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding Definition: uterine bleeding in the absence of an organic disease
Incidence: 10-20% usually at extremes of reproductive life.
6. Diagnosis (by exclusion) History
Investigations (mainly to exclude organic causes)
7. Treatment Medical treatment
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Mechanism of action: inhibit cyclo-oxygenase enzyme and the production of prostaglandins
Phospholipids phospholipase A2 arachidonic acid cyclo-oxygenase prostaglandins
8. Possible Pathophysiology Shift in the endometrium conversion of the endoperoxide from vaso-constrictor PGF2a
Increase in the level and activity of the endometrium fibrinolytic system
Effect of other endometrial derived factors as cytokines, growth factors and endothelins.
9. Effectiveness: Decrease measured menstrual loss by 40% in 75% of patients
Little effect on regularity of cycle or duration of bleeding
10. Side effects: Mainly mild gastrointestinal tract irritation
The treatment should start immediately with the start of bleeding.
11. Antifibrinolytic agents Mechanism of action:
Prevent conversion of plasminogen into plasmin which dissolve the fibrin clots occluding the blood vessels.
Reduce measured loss by 40-50%. The effect is dose related. It should be given with the start of menstruation and continue for 3-4 days.
13. Comparative studies suggested that tranexemic acid is more effective than PG synthetase inhibitors (Milsom et al.1991; Bonnar and Shepard 1996).
14. Side effects: Mild gastrointestinal tract irritation
Serious adverse effect has been documented (intracranial thrombosis – central venous stasis retinopathy) but they are extremely rare.
15. No such complications occurred in Scandinavia over 19 years (1st line of treatment there
Should not prescribed for women with history of thrombo-embolism.
16. Hormonal treatment: Oral contraceptive pills
One of the most effective treatments available for both menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea
Can be used safely in women over 40 years if they are of low risk category
17. Mechanism of action:
Mainly locally by inducing endometrial atrophy with reduction in both PG synthesis and fibrinolysis.
That of oral contraceptive pills in general
Socially unaccepted in single unmarried women.
Norethisterone – medroxy-progesterone acitate.
Are the most commonly prescribed preparations in UK because it was wrongly thought that the majority of women with DUB are anovulatory
19. Mechanism of action:
In anovulatory cycle it induce secretory changes but in ovulatory cycle it produce minimal changes
Norethisterone is given as 5mg t.d.s. for 21 days while Provera is given as 10 mg for 10-14 days during luteal phase.
If given in high dose for 21 days especially in anovulatory cycle it reduce menstrual loss by 80% (Irvin et al., 1998)
In anovulatory cycle it convert irregular, unpredictable bleeding into regular controlled one which is an attractive feature for many women.
21. Side effects:
Usually minimal as abdominal bloating and weight gain
22. Progesterone releasing devices Produce marked reduction in menstrual blood loss up to 80%
Mechanism of action: mainly locally leading to atrophic endometrium with very minimal systemic effect
23. Effectiveness: Scandinavian study (milson et al.,1991) showed decreased menstrual loss by 90%.
Side effects: irregular bleeding is common especially in the in the early months.
24. Danazol: Is an extremely effective drug for treatment of menstrual problems but its use is limited by its high androgenic side effects
25. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist Mechanism of action: produce down regulation of pituitary gland that decrease gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids
Effectiveness: relief amenorrhoea in 90% of cases. Also relief PMS
26. Side effects:
Hypo-estrogenic state and osteoporosis (add estrogen and progesterone if used for long period)
Unless used to prepare the patient for endometrial ablation it is not accepted by most patients for long term.
27. Surgical treatment Suitable for older patients who have no further wish to conceive.
To remove or destroy the endometrium producing changes similar to Asherman’s syndrome (Laser – electrocautary - roller ball - diathermy – microwave- hot balloon).
28. Advantage over hysterectomy
Short hospital stay and return to work
50% of patients were amenorrhoeic, 30-40% experienced marked reduction in menstrual loss
70% or more were satisfied
Recurrence of about 20%
Operative complications as perforation
Post operative pain
30. Hysterectomy Definitive cure for menorrhagia (Abdominal, vaginal or laparoscopic) (total or subtotal)
Mortality of 6/10000 procedures
Injury of ureter, bladder or bowel.
32. POSTMENOPAUSAL BLEEDING
It is bleeding from the genital tract occurring 6 months or more after cessation of menstruation in a woman above the age of 40.
It is a serious symptom because in about 25% of cases, it is due to a malignant lesion in the genital tract
About 7 per 1000 postmenopausal women.
34. (B)Local Causes
Vulva. Malignant tumour, fissured leucoplakia, urethral caruncle, and direct trauma.
Vagina. Malignant tumour, senile vaginitis, trophic ulcer in prolapse, and retained foreign body or pessary in the vagina.
Cervix. Malignant tumour, erosion and ulcers.
Uterus. Malignant tumour, senile endometritis, tuberculous eiidometritis, fibroid .
35. F.tube carcinoma. This leads to a watery vaginal discharge which finally becomes blood stained
Ovary. Carcinoma with metastases in the endometrium and oestrogenic ovarian tumours.
(C) In about 15% of cases no cause is found after physical examination and uterine curettage which shows atrophic endometrium
36. A. History
(a) Age: The commonest age incidence for carcinoma of uterus is 55-70 years while that for carcinoma of the vulva is 60-70 years.
(b) parity: some tumours are more common among nulliparae e.g. endometrial and ovarian carcinoma.
Ask about the amount, character and duration of bleeding, duration of menopause, and the presence of other symptoms as pain and foul discharge, urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms (malignant invasion of bladder or bowel).
37. Past history
diseases as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and blood diseases as leukemia.
Endometrial carcinoma is more common in diabetic hypertensive patients.
Carcinoma of the body of the uterus and ovary have a familial tendency
38. B. General Examination
(I) Signs of anaemia.
(2) signs of bleeding disorders.
(3) presence of cachexia.
(4) examination of heart and chest for secondaries.
(5) estimation of blood pressure
39. C Abdominal Examination
For a pelvi-abdominal mass and ascites which is common with ovarian malignancy.
To detect a local cause for bleeding. The urethra and anal canal are excluded as being the source of bleeding.
40. E. Special Investigations
Transvaginal sonography. It excludes the presence of an ovarian tumour or a lesion in the uterus as endometrial carcinoma.
Cervical smear. Taken in absence of bleeding to detect the presence of malignant cells which may come from the cervix, endometrium, tubes, or ovaries.
41. Endometrial biopsy. It must be done in every case of postmenopausal bleeding, as it is the only sure method to exclude endometrial carcinoma.
Endometrial biopsy is taken by one of three methods;
Fractional uterine curettage,
Endometrial aspiration, or
42. 4. Biopsy is taken from any suspected lesion in the vulva, vagina, or cervix.
5. Laboratory tests. These are done according to the clinical findings and include:
a. Complete blood count.
b. Platelet count, bleeding time, coagulation time, estimation of clotting factors if a bleeding disorder is suspected.
43. Treatment It is treatment of the cause.
If no cause can be detected the patient should be followed up.
If bleeding recurs it is better to do hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy which may reveal a missed early carcinoma of uterus or tube.
44. Thank you