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Blood. Chapter 12. Introduction. What is the function of blood? Blood transports substances (nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones) Also maintains homeostasis in the body with hormones Hematophobia = fear of blood. http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/blood-cells.jpg. Blood and Blood Cells.

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blood

Blood

Chapter 12

introduction
Introduction
  • What is the function of blood?
  • Blood transports substances (nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones)
  • Also maintains homeostasis in the body with hormones
  • Hematophobia = fear of blood
blood and blood cells
Blood and Blood Cells
  • Blood is a type of connective tissue with two basic components:
    • 1. Cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) = 45%
    • 2. Plasma (water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes) = 55%
slide5

http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/uploads/VMC/TreatmentImages/2309_blood_450.jpghttp://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/uploads/VMC/TreatmentImages/2309_blood_450.jpg

slide6
Hematocrit – percentage of cells in a blood sample
    • Should be 45%, remaining 55% is plasma
    • Have to centrifuge a blood sample to test this

http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lzns58gagQ1qzcf71o1_500.jpg

three types of cells
Three types of cells
  • Red blood cells - erythrocytes
  • White blood cells - leukocytes
  • Platelets - thrombocytes

http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/uploads/VMC/TreatmentImages/2309_blood_450.jpg

red blood cells erythrocytes
Red blood cells - erythrocytes
  • Have a biconcave shape
  • RBCC stand for red blood cell count which is the amount of blood cells in a cubic millimeter (5 million per cubic millimeter)
  • They lack nuclei in a mature stage so they will not divide
slide9

http://drbentownsend.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/red-blood-cells-anemic.jpghttp://drbentownsend.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/red-blood-cells-anemic.jpg

slide10
Hematopoiesis – formation of new blood cells (done in bone marrow)
  • Blood cells live for about 120 days, then are phagocytized by the liver and spleen

http://daley.med.harvard.edu/assets/Willy/hematopoiesis.jpg

slide11
Erythropoietin – a hormone that is part of a negative feedback mechanisms that controls the rate of red blood cell formation
    • Produced in the liver and kidneys (controlled by oxygen levels

http://webs.ashlandctc.org/mflath/KEYCHAPTER%2014%20OBJECTIVES_files/image002.gif

main functions of red blood cells
Main functions of Red blood cells
  • Transports oxygen throughout body

and picks up carbon dioxide

  • Hemoglobin - molecule which combines with oxygen to transport it within the blood
  • Iron is critical to the creating of hemoglobin
oxygen levels in blood
Oxygen levels in blood
  • Oxyhemoglobin – blood has plenty of oxygen, appears bright red
  • Deoxyhemoglobin – blood is not carrying much oxygen, appears "bluish red"
slide15
Red blood cell production requires:
    • Iron
    • Vitamin B12
    • Folic Acid
  • Anemia = too few red blood cells

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQtvvjNgc-sxmkYMIULmSzDmGM9yUkUXZekHI43ZzV8CJpFi9fuyg

white blood cells leukocytes
White blood cells – leukocytes
  • General function - defend the body against disease-causing agents (microorganisms)
  • Five different types in two groups:
    • 1. Granulocytes (granular cytoplasm): Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
    • 2. Agranulocytes (lacking granular cytoplasm): Monocytes, Lymphocytes
slide17

http://illuminationstudios.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/leukocytes.jpghttp://illuminationstudios.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/leukocytes.jpg

1 neutrophils
1. Neutrophils
  • Very active in phagocyting bacteria
  • Are present in large amount in the pus of wounds
  • Most common make up 60% of WBC

http://images.wisegeek.com/neutrophil.jpg

2 eosinophils
2. Eosinophils
  • Attack parasites
  • Control allergic reaction
  • 2% WBC
3 basophils
3. Basophils
  • Produces Heparin (prevents blood clots) and Histamines (causes inflammatory reaction)
  • Less then 1% WBC
4 monocytes
4. Monocytes
  • Precursors of macrophages
  • Phagocytes
  • Make up 6% of WBCs
5 lymphocytes
5. Lymphocytes
  • Main constituents of the immune system which is a defense against the attack of pathogenic micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and protista
  • Yield antibodies and arrange them on their membrane
  • Make up 30% of WBCs

White blood cell interactive

platelets thrombocytes
Platelets – Thrombocytes
  • Help initiate formation of blood clots,
  • They close breaks in damaged blood vessels

http://www.ouhsc.edu/platelets/Platelet%20Pics/Platelets3.jpg

blood plasma
Blood Plasma
  • The liquid portion of the blood
    • 92% water
    • transports nutrients, gases, vitamins, maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, and pH
    • Four types of proteins

in plasma

http://blog.inceptsaves.com/files/2011/02/45497505_c0013438-frozen_blood_plasma-spl-1.jpg

albumin
Albumin
  • Origin: Liver
  • Function: Helps maintain osmotic pressure and blood volume (blood pressure)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/ALB_structure.png/250px-ALB_structure.png

alpha globulin
Alpha Globulin
  • Origin: Liver
  • Function: Transport lipids and fat – soluble vitamins
beta globulin
Beta Globulin
  • Origin: Liver
  • Function: Transport lipids and fat – soluble vitamins
gamma globulin
Gamma Globulin
  • Origin: Lymphatic tissue
  • Function: Constitute a type of antibody for immunity
fibrinogen
Fibrinogen
  • Origin: Liver
  • Function: Largest molecules of plasma proteins; important for blood clotting. Major event in blood clotting is the change of fibrogen into fibrin

http://www.bmsc.washington.edu/people/teller/fig1.gif

hemostasis
Hemostasis
  • The process of stopping bleeding
  • Coagulation causes the formation of a blood clot
  • 3 Key Events

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/circulatorysystem/blood/hemostasis/menu/image.gif

1 blood vessel spasm vasoconstriction
1. Blood Vessel Spasm (vasoconstriction)
  • Damaged or broken vessels stimulate muscle tissue in the walls of the blood vessels to contract
  • This slows or stops blood flow, lasts for several minutes.
  • Also, platelets release serotonin, a vasoconstrictor which maintains the muscle spasm even longer.
slide32

http://www.medivisuals.com/images/products/detail/503031-05X.jpghttp://www.medivisuals.com/images/products/detail/503031-05X.jpg

2 platelet plug formation
2. Platelet plug formation
  • Platelets stick to surfaces of damaged blood vessels and to each other to form a "plug"

http://www.baileybio.com/plogger/images/anatomy___physiology/10._powerpoint_-_cardiovascular_system/platelet_plug_formation.jpg

3 blood coagulation
3. Blood coagulation
  • Most effective, forms a blood clot (hematoma).
  • Injury causes an increase in the release of coagulants.
  • Main event - conversion of fibrinogen into long protein threads called fibrin.
slide35
Tissue damage cause the prodction of prothrombin activator (calcium ions must be present)
  • Prothrombin get converted to thrombin
  • Thrombin acts as an enzyme to cause change of fibrinogen to fibrin, which traps platelets and blood cells to form a hematoma
slide36

http://images.emedicinehealth.com/images/eMedicineHealth/illustrations/blood_clot.jpghttp://images.emedicinehealth.com/images/eMedicineHealth/illustrations/blood_clot.jpg

slide37
Thrombus - a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel

http://trialx.com/curetalk/wp-content/blogs.dir/7/files/2011/05/diseases/Thrombus-3.jpg

slide38
Embolus - when the clot moves and becomes lodged in another place

http://www.thrombosisadviser.com.tw/html/images/library/atherothrombosis/embolus-cerebral-artery-illustration-PU.jpg

blood groups and transfusions
Blood Groups and Transfusions
  • Blood types are controlled by three alleles:
    • A, B, & O
  • A & B are codominant; O is recessive
  • This makes the genetics of blood very interesting
antigens and anitbodies
Antigens and Anitbodies
  • Agglutination is the clumping of red blood cells following a transfusion reaction
  • It is due to a reaction between red blood cell surface molecules called antigens and protein antibodies carried in plasma
  • The type of antigens deternmines what blood type a person is
slide42

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-n_Z7V0vf3ic/Tbt5_Vi3P6I/AAAAAAAAABg/tTTs_IXHaPg/s1600/Slide+1.pnghttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/-n_Z7V0vf3ic/Tbt5_Vi3P6I/AAAAAAAAABg/tTTs_IXHaPg/s1600/Slide+1.png

blood transfusions
Blood transfusions
  • Blood that has antibodies on it that is not recognized by the body will be attacked by your immune system
  • O is the Universal Donor because a person with this type of blood does not have antigens on the surface of the blood cells
  • This will not cause an immune reaction in the patient.
slide44
AB is the universal Acceptor because this person will not have an immune reaction to A, B, AB, or O

http://www.bankofmontana.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Blood_Group_Compatibility.gif

rh blood group
Rh Blood group
  • A person can either be Rh+ (have Rh surface antigens) or Rh- (do not have Rh surface antigens)
    • Positive is the dominant genotype

http://www.arcinlandempire.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/blood-type.png

slide46
Problem: When a fetus is Rh+ and the mother is Rh-, this can cause the mother\'s immune system to attack the fetus.
  • Called Erythroblastosis fetalis
  • Doctors can prevent this reaction by giving the woman an injection that will suppress her immune reaction.
slide47

http://classes.midlandstech.edu/carterp/Courses/bio225/chap19/figure_19_04_labeled.jpghttp://classes.midlandstech.edu/carterp/Courses/bio225/chap19/figure_19_04_labeled.jpg

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