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Blood. Chapter 12. Introduction. What is the function of blood? Blood transports substances (nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones) Also maintains homeostasis in the body with hormones Hematophobia = fear of blood. Blood and Blood Cells.

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Chapter 12

  • What is the function of blood?
  • Blood transports substances (nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones)
  • Also maintains homeostasis in the body with hormones
  • Hematophobia = fear of blood
blood and blood cells
Blood and Blood Cells
  • Blood is a type of connective tissue with two basic components:
    • 1. Cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) = 45%
    • 2. Plasma (water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes) = 55%

Hematocrit – percentage of cells in a blood sample
    • Should be 45%, remaining 55% is plasma
    • Have to centrifuge a blood sample to test this

three types of cells
Three types of cells
  • Red blood cells - erythrocytes
  • White blood cells - leukocytes
  • Platelets - thrombocytes

red blood cells erythrocytes
Red blood cells - erythrocytes
  • Have a biconcave shape
  • RBCC stand for red blood cell count which is the amount of blood cells in a cubic millimeter (5 million per cubic millimeter)
  • They lack nuclei in a mature stage so they will not divide

Hematopoiesis – formation of new blood cells (done in bone marrow)
  • Blood cells live for about 120 days, then are phagocytized by the liver and spleen

Erythropoietin – a hormone that is part of a negative feedback mechanisms that controls the rate of red blood cell formation
    • Produced in the liver and kidneys (controlled by oxygen levels

main functions of red blood cells
Main functions of Red blood cells
  • Transports oxygen throughout body

and picks up carbon dioxide

  • Hemoglobin - molecule which combines with oxygen to transport it within the blood
  • Iron is critical to the creating of hemoglobin
oxygen levels in blood
Oxygen levels in blood
  • Oxyhemoglobin – blood has plenty of oxygen, appears bright red
  • Deoxyhemoglobin – blood is not carrying much oxygen, appears "bluish red"
Red blood cell production requires:
    • Iron
    • Vitamin B12
    • Folic Acid
  • Anemia = too few red blood cells

white blood cells leukocytes
White blood cells – leukocytes
  • General function - defend the body against disease-causing agents (microorganisms)
  • Five different types in two groups:
    • 1. Granulocytes (granular cytoplasm): Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
    • 2. Agranulocytes (lacking granular cytoplasm): Monocytes, Lymphocytes

1 neutrophils
1. Neutrophils
  • Very active in phagocyting bacteria
  • Are present in large amount in the pus of wounds
  • Most common make up 60% of WBC

2 eosinophils
2. Eosinophils
  • Attack parasites
  • Control allergic reaction
  • 2% WBC
3 basophils
3. Basophils
  • Produces Heparin (prevents blood clots) and Histamines (causes inflammatory reaction)
  • Less then 1% WBC
4 monocytes
4. Monocytes
  • Precursors of macrophages
  • Phagocytes
  • Make up 6% of WBCs
5 lymphocytes
5. Lymphocytes
  • Main constituents of the immune system which is a defense against the attack of pathogenic micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and protista
  • Yield antibodies and arrange them on their membrane
  • Make up 30% of WBCs

White blood cell interactive

platelets thrombocytes
Platelets – Thrombocytes
  • Help initiate formation of blood clots,
  • They close breaks in damaged blood vessels

blood plasma
Blood Plasma
  • The liquid portion of the blood
    • 92% water
    • transports nutrients, gases, vitamins, maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, and pH
    • Four types of proteins

in plasma

  • Origin: Liver
  • Function: Helps maintain osmotic pressure and blood volume (blood pressure)

alpha globulin
Alpha Globulin
  • Origin: Liver
  • Function: Transport lipids and fat – soluble vitamins
beta globulin
Beta Globulin
  • Origin: Liver
  • Function: Transport lipids and fat – soluble vitamins
gamma globulin
Gamma Globulin
  • Origin: Lymphatic tissue
  • Function: Constitute a type of antibody for immunity
  • Origin: Liver
  • Function: Largest molecules of plasma proteins; important for blood clotting. Major event in blood clotting is the change of fibrogen into fibrin

  • The process of stopping bleeding
  • Coagulation causes the formation of a blood clot
  • 3 Key Events

1 blood vessel spasm vasoconstriction
1. Blood Vessel Spasm (vasoconstriction)
  • Damaged or broken vessels stimulate muscle tissue in the walls of the blood vessels to contract
  • This slows or stops blood flow, lasts for several minutes.
  • Also, platelets release serotonin, a vasoconstrictor which maintains the muscle spasm even longer.

2 platelet plug formation
2. Platelet plug formation
  • Platelets stick to surfaces of damaged blood vessels and to each other to form a "plug"

3 blood coagulation
3. Blood coagulation
  • Most effective, forms a blood clot (hematoma).
  • Injury causes an increase in the release of coagulants.
  • Main event - conversion of fibrinogen into long protein threads called fibrin.
Tissue damage cause the prodction of prothrombin activator (calcium ions must be present)
  • Prothrombin get converted to thrombin
  • Thrombin acts as an enzyme to cause change of fibrinogen to fibrin, which traps platelets and blood cells to form a hematoma

Thrombus - a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel

Embolus - when the clot moves and becomes lodged in another place

blood groups and transfusions
Blood Groups and Transfusions
  • Blood types are controlled by three alleles:
    • A, B, & O
  • A & B are codominant; O is recessive
  • This makes the genetics of blood very interesting
antigens and anitbodies
Antigens and Anitbodies
  • Agglutination is the clumping of red blood cells following a transfusion reaction
  • It is due to a reaction between red blood cell surface molecules called antigens and protein antibodies carried in plasma
  • The type of antigens deternmines what blood type a person is

blood transfusions
Blood transfusions
  • Blood that has antibodies on it that is not recognized by the body will be attacked by your immune system
  • O is the Universal Donor because a person with this type of blood does not have antigens on the surface of the blood cells
  • This will not cause an immune reaction in the patient.
AB is the universal Acceptor because this person will not have an immune reaction to A, B, AB, or O

rh blood group
Rh Blood group
  • A person can either be Rh+ (have Rh surface antigens) or Rh- (do not have Rh surface antigens)
    • Positive is the dominant genotype

Problem: When a fetus is Rh+ and the mother is Rh-, this can cause the mother\'s immune system to attack the fetus.
  • Called Erythroblastosis fetalis
  • Doctors can prevent this reaction by giving the woman an injection that will suppress her immune reaction.