Blood
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Blood. Chapter 12. Introduction. What is the function of blood? Blood transports substances (nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones) Also maintains homeostasis in the body with hormones Hematophobia = fear of blood. http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/blood-cells.jpg. Blood and Blood Cells.

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Blood

Blood

Chapter 12


Introduction

Introduction

  • What is the function of blood?

  • Blood transports substances (nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones)

  • Also maintains homeostasis in the body with hormones

  • Hematophobia = fear of blood


Blood

http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/blood-cells.jpg


Blood and blood cells

Blood and Blood Cells

  • Blood is a type of connective tissue with two basic components:

    • 1. Cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) = 45%

    • 2. Plasma (water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes) = 55%


Blood

http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/uploads/VMC/TreatmentImages/2309_blood_450.jpg


Blood

  • Hematocrit – percentage of cells in a blood sample

    • Should be 45%, remaining 55% is plasma

    • Have to centrifuge a blood sample to test this

http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lzns58gagQ1qzcf71o1_500.jpg


Three types of cells

Three types of cells

  • Red blood cells - erythrocytes

  • White blood cells - leukocytes

  • Platelets - thrombocytes

http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/uploads/VMC/TreatmentImages/2309_blood_450.jpg


Red blood cells erythrocytes

Red blood cells - erythrocytes

  • Have a biconcave shape

  • RBCC stand for red blood cell count which is the amount of blood cells in a cubic millimeter (5 million per cubic millimeter)

  • They lack nuclei in a mature stage so they will not divide


Blood

http://drbentownsend.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/red-blood-cells-anemic.jpg


Blood

  • Hematopoiesis – formation of new blood cells (done in bone marrow)

  • Blood cells live for about 120 days, then are phagocytized by the liver and spleen

http://daley.med.harvard.edu/assets/Willy/hematopoiesis.jpg


Blood

  • Erythropoietin – a hormone that is part of a negative feedback mechanisms that controls the rate of red blood cell formation

    • Produced in the liver and kidneys (controlled by oxygen levels

http://webs.ashlandctc.org/mflath/KEYCHAPTER%2014%20OBJECTIVES_files/image002.gif


Main functions of red blood cells

Main functions of Red blood cells

  • Transports oxygen throughout body

    and picks up carbon dioxide

  • Hemoglobin - molecule which combines with oxygen to transport it within the blood

  • Iron is critical to the creating of hemoglobin


Blood

http://gassama.myweb.uga.edu/hemoglobinmolecule.gif


Oxygen levels in blood

Oxygen levels in blood

  • Oxyhemoglobin – blood has plenty of oxygen, appears bright red

  • Deoxyhemoglobin – blood is not carrying much oxygen, appears "bluish red"


Blood

  • Red blood cell production requires:

    • Iron

    • Vitamin B12

    • Folic Acid

  • Anemia = too few red blood cells

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQtvvjNgc-sxmkYMIULmSzDmGM9yUkUXZekHI43ZzV8CJpFi9fuyg


White blood cells leukocytes

White blood cells – leukocytes

  • General function - defend the body against disease-causing agents (microorganisms)

  • Five different types in two groups:

    • 1. Granulocytes (granular cytoplasm): Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils

    • 2. Agranulocytes (lacking granular cytoplasm): Monocytes, Lymphocytes


Blood

http://illuminationstudios.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/leukocytes.jpg


1 neutrophils

1. Neutrophils

  • Very active in phagocyting bacteria

  • Are present in large amount in the pus of wounds

  • Most common make up 60% of WBC

http://images.wisegeek.com/neutrophil.jpg


2 eosinophils

2. Eosinophils

  • Attack parasites

  • Control allergic reaction

  • 2% WBC


3 basophils

3. Basophils

  • Produces Heparin (prevents blood clots) and Histamines (causes inflammatory reaction)

  • Less then 1% WBC


4 monocytes

4. Monocytes

  • Precursors of macrophages

  • Phagocytes

  • Make up 6% of WBCs


5 lymphocytes

5. Lymphocytes

  • Main constituents of the immune system which is a defense against the attack of pathogenic micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and protista

  • Yield antibodies and arrange them on their membrane

  • Make up 30% of WBCs

White blood cell interactive


Platelets thrombocytes

Platelets – Thrombocytes

  • Help initiate formation of blood clots,

  • They close breaks in damaged blood vessels

http://www.ouhsc.edu/platelets/Platelet%20Pics/Platelets3.jpg


Blood plasma

Blood Plasma

  • The liquid portion of the blood

    • 92% water

    • transports nutrients, gases, vitamins, maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, and pH

    • Four types of proteins

      in plasma

http://blog.inceptsaves.com/files/2011/02/45497505_c0013438-frozen_blood_plasma-spl-1.jpg


Albumin

Albumin

  • Origin: Liver

  • Function: Helps maintain osmotic pressure and blood volume (blood pressure)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/ALB_structure.png/250px-ALB_structure.png


Alpha globulin

Alpha Globulin

  • Origin: Liver

  • Function: Transport lipids and fat – soluble vitamins


Beta globulin

Beta Globulin

  • Origin: Liver

  • Function: Transport lipids and fat – soluble vitamins


Gamma globulin

Gamma Globulin

  • Origin: Lymphatic tissue

  • Function: Constitute a type of antibody for immunity


Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen

  • Origin: Liver

  • Function: Largest molecules of plasma proteins; important for blood clotting. Major event in blood clotting is the change of fibrogen into fibrin

http://www.bmsc.washington.edu/people/teller/fig1.gif


Hemostasis

Hemostasis

  • The process of stopping bleeding

  • Coagulation causes the formation of a blood clot

  • 3 Key Events

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/circulatorysystem/blood/hemostasis/menu/image.gif


1 blood vessel spasm vasoconstriction

1. Blood Vessel Spasm (vasoconstriction)

  • Damaged or broken vessels stimulate muscle tissue in the walls of the blood vessels to contract

  • This slows or stops blood flow, lasts for several minutes.

  • Also, platelets release serotonin, a vasoconstrictor which maintains the muscle spasm even longer.


Blood

http://www.medivisuals.com/images/products/detail/503031-05X.jpg


2 platelet plug formation

2. Platelet plug formation

  • Platelets stick to surfaces of damaged blood vessels and to each other to form a "plug"

http://www.baileybio.com/plogger/images/anatomy___physiology/10._powerpoint_-_cardiovascular_system/platelet_plug_formation.jpg


3 blood coagulation

3. Blood coagulation

  • Most effective, forms a blood clot (hematoma).

  • Injury causes an increase in the release of coagulants.

  • Main event - conversion of fibrinogen into long protein threads called fibrin.


Blood

  • Tissue damage cause the prodction of prothrombin activator (calcium ions must be present)

  • Prothrombin get converted to thrombin

  • Thrombin acts as an enzyme to cause change of fibrinogen to fibrin, which traps platelets and blood cells to form a hematoma


Blood

http://images.emedicinehealth.com/images/eMedicineHealth/illustrations/blood_clot.jpg


Blood

  • Thrombus - a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel

http://trialx.com/curetalk/wp-content/blogs.dir/7/files/2011/05/diseases/Thrombus-3.jpg


Blood

  • Embolus - when the clot moves and becomes lodged in another place

http://www.thrombosisadviser.com.tw/html/images/library/atherothrombosis/embolus-cerebral-artery-illustration-PU.jpg


Blood groups and transfusions

Blood Groups and Transfusions

  • Blood types are controlled by three alleles:

    • A, B, & O

  • A & B are codominant; O is recessive

  • This makes the genetics of blood very interesting


Antigens and anitbodies

Antigens and Anitbodies

  • Agglutination is the clumping of red blood cells following a transfusion reaction

  • It is due to a reaction between red blood cell surface molecules called antigens and protein antibodies carried in plasma

  • The type of antigens deternmines what blood type a person is


Blood

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-n_Z7V0vf3ic/Tbt5_Vi3P6I/AAAAAAAAABg/tTTs_IXHaPg/s1600/Slide+1.png


Blood transfusions

Blood transfusions

  • Blood that has antibodies on it that is not recognized by the body will be attacked by your immune system

  • O is the Universal Donor because a person with this type of blood does not have antigens on the surface of the blood cells

  • This will not cause an immune reaction in the patient.


Blood

  • AB is the universal Acceptor because this person will not have an immune reaction to A, B, AB, or O

http://www.bankofmontana.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Blood_Group_Compatibility.gif


Rh blood group

Rh Blood group

  • A person can either be Rh+ (have Rh surface antigens) or Rh- (do not have Rh surface antigens)

    • Positive is the dominant genotype

http://www.arcinlandempire.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/blood-type.png


Blood

  • Problem: When a fetus is Rh+ and the mother is Rh-, this can cause the mother's immune system to attack the fetus.

  • Called Erythroblastosis fetalis

  • Doctors can prevent this reaction by giving the woman an injection that will suppress her immune reaction.


Blood

http://classes.midlandstech.edu/carterp/Courses/bio225/chap19/figure_19_04_labeled.jpg


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