Periodic trends
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Periodic Trends. For each slide with a periodic table - copy the definition. Copy ALL of the other slides. The purpose of this exercise is for you to be able to understand 4 periodic trends and how to predict them.

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Periodic Trends

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Periodic trends

Periodic Trends

  • For each slide with a periodic table - copy the definition. Copy ALL of the other slides.

  • The purpose of this exercise is for you to be able to understand 4 periodic trends and how to predict them.

  • You will need to know the definitions of the trends and be able to tell me whether two atoms are bigger are smaller, or have more ionization energy, etc. (memorize the diagram with the arrows)

  • Place the icons at the right over the numbers indicated by the range below the icon.


Bonding

Bonding

  • More will be explained about bonding later… for now you need to know:

    • Covalent bonds = sharing electrons

    • Ionic bonds = stealing electrons


Periodic trends

H

13.6

H

13.6

If atoms love their electrons it will cost you a lot of energy to steal 1 of them.

He

24.6

He

24.6

Li

5.4

Li

5.4

Be

9.3

Be

9.3

B

8.3

B

8.3

C

11.3

C

11.3

N

14.5

N

14.5

O

13.6

O

13.6

F

17.4

F

17.4

Ne

21.6

Ne

21.6

17-25

Na

5.1

Na

5.1

Mg

7.6

Mg

7.6

Al

6

Al

6

Si

8.2

Si

8.2

P

10.5

P

10.5

S

10.4

S

10.4

Cl

13

Cl

13

Ar

15.8

Ar

15.8

12.1-16.9

K

4.3

K

4.3

Ca

6.1

Ca

6.1

Ga

6

Ga

6

Ge

7.9

Ge

7.9

As

9.8

As

9.8

Se

9.8

Se

9.8

Br

11.8

Br

11.8

Kr

14

Kr

14

Rb

4.2

Rb

4.2

Sr

5.7

Sr

5.7

In

5.8

In

5.8

Sn

7.3

Sn

7.3

Sb

8.6

Sb

8.6

Te

9

Te

9

I

10.5

I

10.5

Xe

12.1

Xe

12.1

8.6-12

Cs

3.9

Cs

3.9

Ba

5.2

Ba

5.2

Tl

6.1

Tl

6.1

Pb

7.4

Pb

7.4

Bi

7.3

Bi

7.3

Po

8.4

Po

8.4

At

9.3

At

9.3

Rn

10.7

Rn

10.7

6-8.5

Fr

4.1

Fr

4.1

Ra

5.3

Ra

5.3

1st Ionization

3.9-5.8

Energy


1 st ionization energy

1st Ionization Energy

Helium loves its electrons because it is full and small. The closer to the right = the closer to fullness = love for electrons. Large elements have a hard time holding electrons. It would cost you a lot of energy to steal an electron from Helium. Francium would be easy to steal from.

He

24.6

Fr

4.1


Periodic trends

H

2.2

H

2.2

How strongly atoms attract electrons to themselves when bonding.

He

He

Li

.98

Li

.98

Be

1.57

Be

1.57

B

2.04

B

2.04

C

2.55

C

2.55

N

3.04

N

3.04

O

3.44

O

3.44

F

3.96

F

3.96

Ne

Ne

3.9-4

Na

.93

Na

.93

Mg

1.31

Mg

1.31

Al

1.61

Al

1.61

Si

1.9

Si

1.9

P

2.1

P

2.1

S

2.5

S

2.5

Cl

3.16

Cl

3.16

Ar

Ar

3.01-3.89

K

.82

K

.82

Ca

1

Ca

1

Ga

1.81

Ga

1.81

Ge

2.01

Ge

2.01

As

2.18

As

2.18

Se

2.55

Se

2.55

Br

2.96

Br

2.96

Kr

Kr

Rb

.82

Rb

.82

Sr

.95

Sr

.95

In

1.78

In

1.78

Sn

1.96

Sn

1.96

Sb

2.05

Sb

2.05

Te

2.1

Te

2.1

I

2.66

I

2.66

Xe

Xe

2.01-3

Cs

.79

Cs

.79

Ba

.89

Ba

.89

Tl

1.8

Tl

1.8

Pb

1.9

Pb

1.9

Bi

1.9

Bi

1.9

Po

2

Po

2

At

2.2

At

2.2

Rn

Rn

1.01-2

Fr

.7

Fr

.7

Ra

.9

Ra

.9

Electronegativity

0-1


Electronegativity

Electronegativity

Small elements can attract electrons more easily because their positive nucleus is closer. Elements on the right want more electrons until the last Group because they are full. Noble gases like Helium is therefore unreactive. Fluorine attracts electrons the most and Francium the least.

F

3.96

Fr

.7


Periodic trends

H

37

H

37

Atoms get bigger as you go down and to the left.

He

31

He

31

31-80

Li

152

Li

152

Be

112

Be

112

B

85

B

85

C

77

C

77

N

75

N

75

O

73

O

73

F

72

F

72

Ne

71

Ne

71

81-100

Na

186

Na

186

Mg

160

Mg

160

Al

143

Al

143

Si

118

Si

118

P

110

P

110

S

103

S

103

Cl

100

Cl

100

Ar

98

Ar

98

101-159

K

227

K

227

Ca

197

Ca

197

Ga

135

Ga

135

Ge

122

Ge

122

As

120

As

120

Se

119

Se

119

Br

114

Br

114

Kr

112

Kr

112

Rb

248

Rb

248

Sr

215

Sr

215

In

167

In

167

Sn

140

Sn

140

Sb

140

Sb

140

Te

142

Te

142

I

133

I

133

Xe

131

Xe

131

160-269

Cs

265

Cs

265

Ba

215

Ba

215

Tl

170

Tl

170

Pb

146

Pb

146

Bi

150

Bi

150

Po

168

Po

168

At

140

At

140

Rn

140

Rn

140

Fr

282

Fr

282

Ra

223

Ra

223

Atomic Radii

270-300


Atomic radii

Atomic Radii

He

31

Helium is the smallest because it has the least energy levels and is farthest to the right

Francium is big because it has the most energy levels and is farthest to the left.

Fr

282


Periodic trends

Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons. Their size depends on how big they were and whether or not they have gained or lost electrons.

H

H

He

He

15-40

Li

76

Li

76

Be

31

Be

31

B

20

B

20

C

15

C

15

N

146

N

146

O

140

O

140

F

133

F

133

Ne

Ne

41-60

Na

102

Na

102

Mg

72

Mg

72

Al

54

Al

54

Si

41

Si

41

P

212

P

212

S

184

S

184

Cl

181

Cl

181

Ar

Ar

61-100

K

138

K

138

Ca

100

Ca

100

Ga

62

Ga

62

Ge

53

Ge

53

As

222

As

222

Se

198

Se

198

Br

195

Br

195

Kr

Kr

Rb

152

Rb

152

Sr

118

Sr

118

In

81

In

81

Sn

71

Sn

71

Sb

62

Sb

62

Te

221

Te

221

I

220

I

220

Xe

Xe

101-170

Cs

167

Cs

167

Ba

135

Ba

135

Tl

95

Tl

95

Pb

84

Pb

84

Bi

74

Bi

74

Po

Po

At

At

Rn

Rn

Fr

194

Fr

194

Ra

Ra

171-200

Ionic Radii


Ionic radii

Ionic Radii

He

The left side loses electrons and the right side gains electrons. Carbon is the smallest and looses the most, so its ion is the smallest. As you go down and to the left toward Francium, it gets bigger. It continues to get bigger from the top right down and to the left toward Arsenic which is the biggest. Noble Gases don’t make ions.

C

15

As

222

Fr

194


Periodic trends

QuestionsCopy the following and paste it on a wiki titled 10-1 Periodic Trends. Answer the questions there.

ATOMIC RADIUS - Rank the following from smallest to largest atomic radius.

1. Li, C, F 2. Li, Na, K 3. Ge, P, O

4. C, N, Al 5. Al, Cl, Ga 6. Describe the periodic trend

IONIC RADIUS - Rank the following from smallest to largest ionic radius.

7. Mg2+, Si4-, S2-8. Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+9. F-, Cl-, Br-

10. Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+11. Si4-, P3-, O2-12. Describe the periodic trend

IONIZATION ENERGY - Rank the following from lowest to highest ionization energy.

13. Mg, Si, S 14. Mg, Ca, Ba 15. F, Cl, Br

16. Ba, Cu, Ne 17. e. Si, P, He 18. Describe the periodic trend

ELECTRONEGATIVITY - Rank the following from lowest to highest electronegativity

19. Li, C, N 20. C, O, Ne 21. Si, P, O

22. K, Mg, P 23. S, F, He24. Describe the periodic trend


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