Finnish passive resistance against russification 1899 1905
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Finnish Passive Resistance against Russification 1899-1905. Presentation Overview. Finland’s Relationship with Russia ‘Russification’ Finnish Resistance to Russification Methods of Resistance Social Base of the Resistance Outcomes. Finland’s Relationship with Russia. 1808-9 Finnish War

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Finnish Passive Resistance against Russification 1899-1905

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Finnish passive resistance against russification 1899 1905

Finnish Passive Resistance against Russification 1899-1905


Presentation overview

Presentation Overview

  • Finland’s Relationship with Russia

  • ‘Russification’

  • Finnish Resistance to Russification

    • Methods of Resistance

    • Social Base of the Resistance

  • Outcomes


Finland s relationship with russia

Finland’s Relationship with Russia

  • 1808-9 Finnish War

  • PaxRussica

  • Tsar Alexander I’s ‘special

    agreement’

  • Autonomy for Security


Russification

‘Russification’

  • 1898 Appointment of Governor-General Bobrikov, who attempted to ‘Russify’ Finland:

    • Abolition of the Secretary of State

    • Russian jurisdiction

    • Russian as the official language

    • Monitoring and surveillance of

      educational institutions

    • Abolition of Finnish monetary and

      cultural institutions

    • A Russian press and general censorship

      of the press

    • Incorporation of the Finnish army into that of the Empire


Russification1

‘Russification’

  • February Manifesto 1899

    • Legislation of imperial

      concern not

      constitutionally bound to

      Finnish political systems

    • ‘the murder of Finland’

    • Directly led to the passive resistance movement


Why passive resistance

Why passive resistance?

  • Affront to burgeoning national culture

  • National unity was more geared to passive than violent resistance

  • Militarily mismatched with Russia


Methods of resistance

Methods of Resistance

  • Great National Address 1899 – 523,000 signatures

  • Pro Finlandia addresses

    earned the support of

    prominent Europeans

  • Mechelin Committees

  • 1901 Conscription Act protest

    address – 475,000 signatures


Methods of resistance kagal

Methods of Resistance - Kagal

  • More direct action, less protest address

  • 45 departments, numerous subgroups

  • Financed through collections and donations

  • Secretive, never sought mass membership


Methods of resistance press

Methods of Resistance - Press

  • Anonymous

  • 22 papers shut down by Bobrikov

  • Fria Ord (Free Words, Swedish) – 2,500

  • VapaitaLehtisiä(Free Leaflets,

    Finnish) – 3,000

  • Means of spreading the passive

    resistance ideal and tactics


Russian limitations

Russian Limitations

  • A deep integration within Finnish society was lacking

  • Finns understood their passive resistance as part of an empire-wide programme

  • Only 15,000 troops; ineffective police, gendarmes belittled

  • Dictatorship Decree 9 April 1903


Methods of resistance active

Methods of Resistance - Active

  • 1904 Finnish Active Resistance Party

  • Japanese aid forthcoming but failed to deliver

  • Kagal’s endorsement of violence

  • 1904 Assassination of Bobrikov


Methods of resistance the general strike

Methods of Resistance – The General Strike

  • 30 October 1905 railway workers shut down the system

  • Unified rather than divided

    Finnish society

  • Threat of socialist

    revolutionaries

  • Tsar agreed to more moderate Constitutionalist demands

  • Break up of organised resistance groups


The social base

The Social Base

  • Nationalist Fennomanians

  • Groups from all walks of life: conservatives, liberals, workers, students

  • Some socialists saw the attempt to preserve the system as incompatible with the workers’ movement

  • “God’s will is not on the side of the resistance.”


Outcomes

Outcomes

  • Press regulation failed, resistance press reigned supreme.

  • Failure of school

    surveillance

  • Lack of European

    support

  • Conscription Act

    revoked 29 March

    1905


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