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Types of Cells. Cell Theory. All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division. . Definition of Cell. A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. .

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Cell theory
Cell Theory

  • All living things are made up of cells.

  • Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.

  • All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.


Definition of cell

Definition of Cell

A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.


Examples of cells
Examples of Cells

Amoeba Proteus

Plant Stem

Bacteria

Red Blood Cell

Nerve Cell


Two types of cells
Two Types of Cells

  • Prokaryotic

  • Eukaryotic


Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells

Eukaryotic means “true nucleus”

Organisms: Plants, Fungi, Protists, Animals

Divides by: Mitosis

Prokaryotic means “before the nucleus.”

Organisms: Bacteria & Archaea

Divides by: Binary fission

Eukaryote

Prokaryote


Prokaryotic
Prokaryotic

  • Do not have structures surrounded by membranes

  • Few internal structures

  • One-celled organisms: Bacteria and Archaea


Prokaryotic cells three shapes
Prokaryotic Cellsthree shapes


Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic

  • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes

  • Most living organisms

Plant

Animal


http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif



Cell parts

Cell Parts

Organelles


Organelles
Organelles

Cell membrane

Cell Wall

Nucleus

Nuclear Membrane

Nucleolus

Centrosomes/Centrioles

Chromosomes

Cytoplasm

Endoplasmic reticulum(ER)

Ribosomes

Mitochondria

Golgi Apparatus

Lysosomes

Vacuole

Chloroplast


Cell membrane
Cell Membrane

  • the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell.

  • semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.


How does the cell membrane work?

  • Has 2 layers of MOLECULES = BILAYER

  • Bi means two

  • The layers are made up of molecules called phospholipids


Cell Membrane: PHOSPHOLIPIDS

  • Each phospholipids has a HYDROPHOBIC and HYDROPHILIC end

  • HYDRO = means water

  • PHOBIC = means afraid

  • PHILIC = means loving


Cell Membrane: PHOSPHOLIPIDS

  • One end of the molecule is “afraid” of the water and one end “loves” being in the water.

  • Proteins are stuck inside the membrane

  • Proteins are across the bi-layer and make the holes that let ions and molecules in and out of the cell


Cell wall
Cell Wall

  • Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria

  • Supports & protects cells


Nucleus
Nucleus

  • Directs cell activities

  • Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane

  • Contains genetic material - DNA


Nuclear membrane
Nuclear Membrane

  • Surrounds nucleus

  • Made of two layers

  • Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus


Nucleolus
Nucleolus

  • Inside nucleus

  • Contains RNA to build proteins


Centrosome
Centrosome

  • a small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules

  • where microtubules are made

  • During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell

  • The centriole is the dense center of the centrosome.


Chromosomes
Chromosomes

  • In nucleus

  • Made of DNA

  • Contain instructions for traits & characteristics


Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm

  • Gel-like material outside the cell nucleus

  • Where the organelles are located

  • Surrounded by cell membrane

  • Contains hereditary material


Endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Moves materials around in cell

  • Smooth type:

    • lacks ribosomes

    • Main function is to collect, maintain& transport things

    • Creates steroids

  • Rough type (pictured):

    • ribosomes embedded in surface


Ribosomes
Ribosomes

  • Made in nucleus

  • Each cell contains thousands, small dot like, floating around the cell

  • Make proteins

  • There are two kinds of ribosomes

    • Attached to the rough ER

    • floating in the cell cytoplasm


Mitochondria
Mitochondria

  • The “Power House “ of the Cell

  • Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates

  • Controls level of water and other materials in cell

  • Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

  • spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane


Golgi bodies
Golgi Bodies

  • also called the Golgi Apparatus or Golgi Complex

  • Flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus

  • packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export"

  • It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes


Lysosome
Lysosome

  • A type of cell vesicles

  • round organelles surrounded by a membrane

  • Digestive “plant” for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

  • The enzymes bond to food & digest it (acidic interior), releasing smaller molecules absorbed by the mitochondria


Vacuoles
Vacuoles

  • Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal

  • In a plant the Large Vacuole contains water solution and helps maintain shape

  • Plant Cell

  • Animal Cell


Chloroplast
Chloroplast

  • Usually found in plant cells

  • Contains green chlorophyll

  • Where photosynthesis takes place

  • Photosynthesis : the process in which plant use water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to make food (glucose)


Plant vs animal cells

PLANT CELLS

1. Cell wall

2. One large vacuole

3. Chloroplasts

4. No lysosomes

5. Rectangular

6. Photosynthesis

ANIMAL CELLS

1. No cell wall

2. A few small vacuoles

3. No chloroplasts

4. Lysosomes

5. Roundish

6. Respiration

Plant vs. Animal Cells


Review
REVIEW

Two Types of Cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

Animal cells and plant cells are Eukaryotic, but have some differences

Cells are made up of many organelles, each having a specific function


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