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Water Pollution. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 19. Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College Modified by Charlotte Kirkpatrick. Key Concepts. Types, sources, and effects of water pollutants.

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Water Pollution

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Water pollution

Water Pollution

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 19

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

Modified by Charlotte Kirkpatrick

Key concepts

Key Concepts

  • Types, sources, and effects of water pollutants

  • Major pollution problems of surface water

  • Major pollution problems of groundwater

  • Reduction and prevention of water pollution

  • Drinking water quality

Types and sources of water pollution

Types and Sources of Water Pollution

Fig. 19-3 p. 485

  • Point sources

Refer to Tables 19-1 and 19-2 p. 484 and 485

  • Nonpoint sources

  • Biological oxygen demand

  • Water quality

Point and nonpoint sources

Point and Nonpoint Sources


Rural homes


Urban streets

Animal feedlot


Suburban development


Wastewater treatment plant

Fig. 19-4

p. 486

Pollution of streams

Pollution of Streams

  • Oxygen sag curve

  • Factors influencing recovery

Fig. 19-5 p. 488

Pollution of lakes

Pollution of Lakes

Fig. 19-7 p. 491

  • Eutrophication

  • Slow turnover

  • Thermal stratification

Pollution of lakes1

Pollution of Lakes

Fig. 19-7 p. 491

Case study the great lakes

Case Study: The Great Lakes

Fig. 19-8

p. 492

Groundwater pollution sources

Groundwater Pollution: Sources

  • Cold temperatures

  • Low flow rates

  • Few bacteria

Hazardous waste injection well


Coal strip mine runoff

De-icing road salt

Buried gasoline and solvent tank

Cesspool septic tank

Pumping well

Gasoline station

Waste lagoon

Water pumping well



Leakage from faulty casing

Accidental spills


Unconfined freshwater aquifer

Confined aquifer

Fig. 19-10 p. 494

Confined freshwater aquifer

Groundwater flow

Groundwater pollution prevention

Groundwater Pollution Prevention

  • Monitoring aquifers

  • Leak detection systems

  • Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal

  • Storing hazardous materials above ground

Ocean pollution

Ocean Pollution

Fig. 19-12 p. 498

Case study chesapeake bay

Case Study: Chesapeake Bay

Fig. 19-14 p. 500

  • Largest US estuary

  • Relatively shallow

  • Slow “flushing” action to Atlantic

  • Major problems with dissolved O2

Oil spills

Oil Spills

  • Sources: offshore wells, tankers, pipelines and storage tanks

  • Effects: death of organisms, loss of animal insulation and buoyancy, smothering

  • Significant economic impacts

  • Mechanical cleanup methods: skimmers and blotters

  • Chemical cleanup methods: coagulants and dispersing agents

Solutions preventing and reducing surface water pollution

Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Surface Water Pollution

Nonpoint Sources

Point Sources

  • Reduce runoff

  • Clean Water Act

  • Buffer zone vegetation

  • Water Quality Act

  • Reduce soil erosion

Technological approach septic systems

Technological Approach: Septic Systems

  • Require suitable soils and maintenance

Fig. 19-16 p. 504

Technological approach sewage treatment primary and secondary

Technological Approach: Sewage Treatment: Primary and Secondary

  • Mechanical and biological treatment

Fig. 19-17p. 504

Technological approach advanced sewage treatment

Technological Approach: Advanced Sewage Treatment

  • Removes specific pollutants

Fig. 19-18p. 505

Technological approach using wetlands to treat sewage

Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage

Fig. 19-19p. 506

Drinking water quality

Drinking Water Quality

Fig. 19-11 p. 495

  • Bottled water

  • Safe Drinking Water Act

  • Maximum contaminant levels

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