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Chapter 6 & 7. Groups and Deviance. Groups. Composed of people who have one or more goals in common and share common ways of thinking and feeling . Group Features. Groups are NOT…. Primary Groups. Emotional Support. People who are emotionally close and know one another well

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Chapter 6 & 7

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Chapter 6 7

Chapter 6& 7

Groups and Deviance


Chapter 6 7

Groups

Composed of people who have one or moregoalsin common and share common ways ofthinkingandfeeling.


Chapter 6 7

Group Features


Chapter 6 7

Groups are NOT…


Primary groups

Primary Groups

Emotional Support

  • People who are emotionally close and know one another well

  • Seek one another’s company

  • Characterized byprimaryrelationships:

    • intimate (small and repeated)

    • personal (face-to-face)

    • caring

    • fulfilling

Socialization

Conformity


Secondary groups

Secondary Groups

  • Impersonal interactions

  • Goal oriented

  • Characterized by secondaryrelationships that involve only parts of your personality

Achieve a Goal

  • Are these groups:

  • In regular contact?

  • Sharing ways of thinking, feeling, behaving?

  • Taking each other’s behavior into account?

  • Seeking a common goal?


Chapter 6 7

ACTIVITY TIME!!!

YOU AND YOUR CLASSMATES ARE GOING TO ACT OUT THE ASSIGNED SCENARIO.


Audience

AUDIENCE

Record whether each scenario is an example of a Primary Group or a Secondary Group


Chapter 6 7

Groups

Turn to the person next to you and brainstorm at least 2 PRIMARY groups not discussed in class.


Chapter 6 7

Groups

Turn to the person next to you and brainstorm at least 2 SECONDARY groups not discussed in class.


Chapter 6 7

Social Networks

Includes all people we socially interact with during our lifetime (both primary and secondary groups)

The Internet has greatly expanded our social networks


Chapter 6 7

Social Networks Can Provide...

  • sense of belonging

  • support and advice

  • connections to new groups (labor market)

  • communication between members of various groups

  • reinforcement of acceptable and unacceptable behavior.


Chapter 6 7

SOCIAL INTERACTION


Chapter 6 7

1. Cooperation

Individuals in a group or groups combinetheir efforts to reach a goal

Demands the best use of limitedresources

EXAMPLE:

Playing games

Doing chores


Chapter 6 7

2. Conflict

Groups or individuals working against one another for a larger share of the reward

Defeatingan opponent is the goal

Having a winner is essential!

Promotes unity/cooperation within opposing groups


Chapter 6 7

3. Social Exchange

I’ll lend you the money you need, but you’ve got to do something for me!

Volunteering with the expectation of getting something in return

  • Those participating may have different goals, but both parties benefit.

    Rewardnot the relationships with others is the key.

    EX. Wash mom’s car to takeit out later

Soooo.....what’s in it for me?

I’ll scratch your back if you scratch mine!


Chapter 6 7

4. Coercion

Individuals or groups are forcedto give in to the will of others

EX: Prisoners revealing secrets under pressure

parents threatening punishment if misbehaving

Central element is domination.

Expressed most often subtly through social pressures (ridicule, rejection, etc.)


Milgram s obedience experiment

Milgram’s Obedience Experiment

Authority figures can coerce people to do things they normally would not do.


Chapter 6 7

5. Conformity

Adapting behavior to match the people around us

Most people conform to avoid exclusion


Chapter 6 7

Asch's Conformity Experiment

People followed group 37% of the time even though the group was clearly wrong


Chapter 6 7

Bystander Effect

Tendency for people to help in an emergency decreases as the number of bystanders increases.

Kitty Genovese


Chapter 6 7

ACTIVITY TIME!!!

Use the Internet to locate an article that addresses each of the five types of social interactions:

Cooperation

  • Competition

  • Social Exchange

    Coercion

    Conformity


Deviance

Deviance

Behavior that departs from societal norms

Look at me! I’m a DEVIANT!


Types of deviance

TYPES OF DEVIANCE


Types of deviance1

TYPES OF DEVIANCE

  • Primary

  • Occasional breaking of the law

  • Not part of person’s lifestyle

  • Does not affect self-concept

  • Secondary

  • Habitual breaking of the law

  • Part of the person’s lifestyle

  • Self-concept centered around breaking the norms


Benefits and costs

BENEFITS AND COSTS

BENEFITS

  • Clarifies norms and strengthens values associated with that norm

  • Temporary safety valve

  • Social Change


Benefits and costs1

BENEFITS AND COSTS

COSTS

  • Erodes trust

  • Can cause non-conforming behavior in others

  • Expensive


Homework activity

Homework Activity

As you pass through the hallways and in your social interactions outside of school notice examples of deviance.

Come to class with threeexamples tomorrow!


Ms olson s e xample

Ms. Olson’s Example

  • Two kids in Dunkin Donuts, they finish their donuts

  • On their way out, one asks the attendant for a napkin (less than polite)

  • The young man uses the napkin on his way out the door and throws it on the ground in the parking lot

  • What would you do?

  • Here’s what I did…I spoke up and said to the other young man, “Are you going to let him do that?” He shrugs his shoulders, points to his friend as he is walking across the street

  • The other young man timidly comes back, picks up the napkin and throws it in the garbage can

  • I told him he is better than his “friend” and a better person for picking up the napkin


Is addiction deviance

Is Addiction Deviance?

  • What are things that people become addicted to? – write on board

  • Do you consider people that are addicted to these things deviants?

  • Why? Why not?

  • Does American society accept certain addictions more so than others?

  • Why?

Addressing the Current Social Issues (p205)


Girls v boys challenge

Girls v. Boys Challenge

This is a girls’ versus boys’ challenge! Who can act out the best deviant scheme in the class? Using the ideas about deviance that you have either been a part of or witnessed (of course school friendly) you are to write and perform a skit.


The following are requirements

The following are requirements:

  • All group members must have a speaking AND acting role.

  • All group members must have a specific task:

    • Script writer

      • Good copy - Typed

      • A copy for each group member AND one for teacher

        • Make an effort to know your lines

    • Scene design

      • Saved as a PowerPoint Presentation (H-Drive)

      • Minimum of three backgrounds


The following are requirements1

The following are requirements:

  • Choreographer

    • Set directions – as the actors are speaking there must be some sort of movement/action to the skit

  • Deviance design

    • Developing the basic idea of the skit

    • Details to be worked out by all group members

  • Costumes/Apparel

    • Actors must be in costume


The following are requirements2

The following are requirements:

  • Sign up for one of the above tasks

    • Put your name at the top of a paper (one for every person)

    • Write down all work that you did as a group member. All work must be documented on paper (paper trail)!

  • Length 3-5 minutes

  • Practice! Practice! Practice!


Chapter 6 7

Can

DEVIANCE

be curbed?


Social control

SOCIAL CONTROL

  • Encourages conformityto society’s norms.

Internal = GeneralizedOther

Lies within the individual

External = Sanctions

Formal and Informal

Rewards and Punishments


Shoplifting

Shoplifting

  • A deviant behavior?

  • What do you consider stealing?

    • Petty theft – gum, soda

    • Grand theft – automotive

    • Plagiarism – stealing ideas, words

  • What stores have to deal with stealing?

    • High end vs. low end


  • Shoplifting1

    Shoplifting

    • Internal Social Controls

    • Knowing/believing stealing is wrong

      • Even in times of need?

      • “Citizen’s arrest” – other customers engaging suspicious activity

  • External Social Controls

    • Security tags

    • Cameras

    • Fines

    • Imprisonment

  • Which methods are most effective?

    Why?


    Chapter 6 7

    What can you conclude

    from this table

    about the relationship

    between level

    of economic development

    and crime?


    Top ten countries in of prisoners

    Top Ten Countries in # of Prisoners


    Criminal justice system

    Criminal Justice System

    • Purpose is to control and punish lawbreakers

    • Components of the Criminal Justice System

      • Police

      • Courts

      • Correctional system

    • Does the Criminal Justice System …

    • Provide Internal or External Social Control?

    • Give Formal or Informal Sanctions?

    • Control Positive or Negative Deviance?


    Deterrence approach

    Deterrence Approach

    • Uses threat of punishment to discourage criminal actions

      • Effectiveness depends on…

        • Likelihood of getting caught (we don’t always get caught)

        • Severity of punishment (fines vs electric chair)

        • How quickly the punishment takes effect (court system sluggish)

          Do you think this approach to curbing crime is effective? Why or why not?

        • Even though you know you can get caught speeding, do you still do it?

        • Even though you can get caught drinking underage, do you still do it?

        • Even though the sale and use of drugs is illegal, do you still take part in it?


    Capital punishment

    Capital Punishment

    • Capital Punishment = the death penalty

    • Is it a deterrent?

    NPR Clips


    Chapter 6 7

    Blue: Abolished for all crimes

    Yellow-Green: Abolished for crimes except those committed in exceptional circumstances (e.g. crimes committed in time of war)

    Orange: Abolished in practice

    Reddish-brown: Legal form of punishment for heinous offenses


    Chapter 6 7

    Blue states have no death penalty statute.

    Yellow-green states have a death penalty statute but have not executed anyone since 1976.

    Reddish-orange states have executed people since 1976.


    Capital punishment1

    Capital Punishment

    • Research the Opposing viewpoints database (library databases)

    • Print an article that supports your view on the issue of capital punishment (for or against)

    • Read, highlight and outline the article

    • Write down a minimum of three points/facts/statistics – from the article – that support your opinion


    Retribution

    Retribution

    • Punishment intended to make criminals pay for their acts

    • Not intended for individuals to take personal vengeance

      • Enacted by designated officials only

      • If a mother takes the law into her own hands and kills her son’s murderer, she must answer to society for her action.


    Incarceration

    Incarceration

    • Keeping criminals in prison

      • Protecting society

    • If criminals are not on the streets, they are not committing crimes


    Rehabilitation

    Rehabilitation

    • Attempts to resocializecriminals

    • Social and work skills that will help criminals adjust to society

    • What percentage of criminals do you think are sent back to prison within 5 years of their release?

    • RECIDIVISM

      • Return to criminal behavior

      • Why so high?

        • Basic nature of offender

        • Influences of more hardened criminals (while in prison)

        • Stigma of being an ex-convict

    50%


    Chapter 6 7

    That’s All, Folks!


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