Studying Gender, ICTs & Development using New Institutionalism Sharon Morgan, IDPM. background & rationale scope & perspectives on gender, technology & development New Institutionalism as a conceptual framework practical research issues. Background & Rationale.
the importance of ICTs for development:
the importance of men’s and women’s participation:
the problem: women’s participation
As well as access to ICT resources, full engagement with the technology covers participation in:
and consideration of:
Perspectives vary from a focus on the individual to a focus on the context in which women exist
Gender and Development:
Gender and Technology:
Additionally, multiple gender roles need to be considered:
and the different types of gender needs: (Moser cited in Reeves and Baden 2000, p14)
Adopting a suitable gender perspective for researching ICT-based enterprises/projects, the following need to be accommodated:
=> technical artifacts are socially shaped and “a technological system is never merely technical: its real-world functioning has technical, economic, organizational, political and even cultural elements.”
=>sees “engagement with the process of technological change as key to the renegotiation of gender power relations”
=> argues “technology is both a source and a consequence of gender relations” which provides a space for agency in transforming technology
“ different groups of people involved in a technology can have very different understandings of that technology….the users can radically alter the meanings and deployment of technologies.”
Institutions (North 1990; Scott 1995; Lowndes 1996; Santos 2005)
- rules, norms, procedures that govern behaviour
- enforcement mechanisms & sanctions (for non-compliance)
=> convey a social dimension
=> convey a political dimension
Regulative:formal & informal rules, violations, sanctions,etc
Normative: norms & values desirable/appropriate/correct behaviour, moral obligations
Cognitive: internal to individual, ‘taken-for-granted’ness, interests
Sample research question: What is it about technical ICT work that appears to turn women off/exclude them?
=> what factors are external to the individual? Are these regulatory (eg. working hours and conditions) or normative (eg. social expectation & view of gendered work, family pressure, cultural restrictions on working environment for females)?
=> what factors are internal to the individual? What personal assumptions/values/beliefs are they based on (eg. views on nature of technical work, preferences)?
=> what [compensating] strategies has she used to address barriers?