ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER - CURRENT AND FUTURE TROPOSPHERIC APPLICATIONS
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ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER - CURRENT AND FUTURE TROPOSPHERIC APPLICATIONS. W. F. Feltz, # D. Turner, H. B. Howell, R. Dedecker, *W. L. Smith and H. Woolf 6 th ISTP Leipzig, Germany 14-20 September 2003 University of Wisconsin CIMSS/SSEC

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ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER - CURRENT AND FUTURE TROPOSPHERIC APPLICATIONS

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Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER - CURRENT AND FUTURE TROPOSPHERIC APPLICATIONS

W. F. Feltz, #D. Turner, H. B. Howell, R. Dedecker, *W. L. Smith and H. Woolf

6th ISTP Leipzig, Germany 14-20 September 2003

University of Wisconsin CIMSS/SSEC

*NASA LaRC, # Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

OVERVIEW

  • Instrument Overview

  • Some current AERI Applications

  • Advancements in Temperature and Moisture Retrieval (IHOP and CRYSTAL-FACE)

  • Conclusions


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

INSTRUMENT OVERVIEW

IR Detector

Dewar with

Cooler Cold Finger

ABB

Stirling Cooler

Compressor

HBB

Bomem

Interferometer


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERI SPECIFICATIONS

  • Spectral Resolution better than 1 cm-1 wavenumber from 520-3000 cm-1 (3 - 20 um)

  • Calibrated to 1% ambient radiance (better than 1 K ambient temperature)

  • Automated and environmentally hardened

  • Time resolution: 6 - 10 minutes (adjustable)

  • Ground-based and portable

  • Surface viewing mode and uplooking mode


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

UW AERI - 2 (AERIBAGO, SSEC)

DOE AERI - 8 (Kansas/Oklahoma, Alaska, S. Pacific)

U-Miami M-AERI - 3 (Florida)

Bomem AERI -8 (Italy, California, Maryland, Canada)

U Idaho P-AERI - 1 (Antarctica)


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERI APPLICATIONS


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Real-time Thermodynamic Retrievals

Six AERI systems (including Madison, WI) are currently processing PBL retrievals in near real-time, allowing “on the fly” validation:


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERI Cloud Phase Detection: Sample Results

Credits: Dr. David Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratories


Intercomparison of two marine aeris measuring sst

INTERCOMPARISON OF TWO MARINE AERIS MEASURING SST

16 Day Cruise

Hawaii

Largest Daily Mean Difference: 0.020 K

Ten Day Mean Difference: 0.005 K

New Zealand

Track of the R/V Roger Revelle

28 Sept. - 14 Oct. 1997

Credits: Dr. Peter Minnett U of Miami RSMAS


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Marine-AERI Cruises Conducted by U of Miami Since 1996 to Obtain Ocean Surface Skin Temperature and Emissivity


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERI THERMODYNAMIC RETRIEVAL

SPECTRAL REGIONS


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERI Thermodynamic Retrieval Flow Chart

Radiosonde

Climatology Regression

Data Base

T,Q Surface to 3 Km

AERI Radiance

Cloud Base Height

(if present)

Hybrid First Guess

Physical Retrieval

NWP Model/Satellite

T,Q Profile 2 Km -

Tropopause

Temperature/

Moisture Profile

Surface Moisture


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERIplus Retrieval Description

  • Two step retrieval, construct optimal first guess than conduct physical retrieval

    • Statistical retrieval is a combined regression and NWP profile

    • Physical retrieval used is iterative onion peel technique

  • Temperature and water vapor mixing ratio profiles retrieved from high resolution AERI spectra up to 3 km

  • Temporal resolution ~ ten minutes (increasing to < 1 minute)

  • Vertical resolution improved in lowest kilometer from 100 m to 50 m

  • Fast model update based on LBLRTM with HITRAN 2000 trans. coeffs

  • Constraints: AERI retrieval only possible in clear sky or below cloud base to 3 kilometers


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERIplus, RUC, GOE-8 Profile Statistics


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Examples of the updated AERIplus temperature retrieval improvement during the IHOP field experiment. The red profile was calculated with old algorithm while the green profile uses the new LBLRTM based fast model with improved vertical resolution and spectroscopy as compared to radiosonde (thick black line)

Double inversion resolved with new algorithm


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

IHOP AERIplus Retrieval RMS Statistics


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERI THERMODYNAMIC RETRIEVALS


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

IHOP AERIplus Retrieval RMS Statistics


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Hillsboro

3 June 0230 UTC

Vici

Lamont

Morris

Purcell


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERI

West – East AERI water vapor cross sections during IHOP


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Total Precipitable Water


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERIPLUS COUPLED WITH NOAA WIND PROFILER MOISTURE DIVERGENCE/ADVECTION

Storm Reports from 30 April 2003

Moisture Divergence Calculation

Credits: Robin Tanamachi U of Oklahoma


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Example: Crystal Rapid-sampling AERI data


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Applications of High Temporal Resolution AERI Data: Boundary Layer Roll Detection during CRYSTAL

40-s Profiles: 17-21 UTC

20 g/kg

2.0

15

1.5

Altitude (km)

Mixing Ratio (g/kg)

1.0

10

0.5

315 m

0

5

17

21

Time (UTC)

5

AERI WV (g/kg) Perturbations: 315 m

0

40 s Perturbation

5 min. Running Mean

-5

17

Time (UTC)

21


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Applications of High Temporal Resolution AERI Data: Boundary Layer Roll Detection during CRYSTAL

AERI

Boundary Layer Rolls

Perturbation Power Spectrum

GOES-8 1 km Visible: 1925 UTC, 7/29/02

17-25 min period at 99 % significance

Boundary Layer Depth: 700 meters

Roll Wavelength: ~ 5 km, Updraft Width: ~1.5 km

Roll Orientation: 120°, Motion: 135°

GOES Derived Roll Periodicity: 23 minutes

AERI Derived Roll Periodicity: 17-25 mins

Mecikalski J.M., K. M. Bedka, D. D. Turner, and W.F. Feltz: Evidence for the Presence of Roll Structures in the Convective Boundary Layer using Thermodynamic Profiling Instruments. J. Geo. Res., In Preparation


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Future Research Plans

  • Updated AERIplus retrieval algorithm implemented at for DOE ARM at PNNL, all AERI data from SGP with be reprocess with RUC analysis at first guess

  • High temporal resolution (< 1 minute) AERI radiance measurements were collected at Crystal and Texas 2002 to test improvement in gathering cloud and thermodynamic information, all DOE ARM AERI systems will be in rapid sample mode in near future

  • Experimenting with SHEBA and NSA data using ECMWF analysis as first guess (no RUC available) for PBL LES (Dr J. Pinto and Dr J. Curry)

  • Test new physical retrieval methodology will be tested to allow error bars and error covariance matrixes to be calculated for mesoscale model assimilation (working with Dr. D. Turner PNNL)


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Future Research Plans

  • A five year period of a five AERI system network with collocated with exist for study of moisture temporal and spatial gradients (students working in this direction)

  • New research in determination of cloud properties (starting with cloud phase) using emissivity observations derived from AERI data (Dr. D. Turner presentation)

  • Working with several groups outside the DOE ARM science team on PBL and atmospheric stability research using the AERI thermodynamic data

  • Coupled with the Raman Lidar and wind profilers at the central SGP facility near Lamont, Oklahoma there is a long-term “treasure chest” of temperature, moisture, wind, and aerosol tropospheric profile information which is underutilized for tropospheric research (See Dr. R. Ferrare presention)


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

AERI Information:

  • References:

    • Feltz, W. F., J. R. Mecikalski, 2002: Monitoring High Temporal Resolution Convective Stability Indices Using the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) During the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma/Kansas Tornado Outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 445-455.

    • Feltz, W. F., H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. M. Woolf, and H E. Revercomb, 2003: Near Continuous Profiling of Temperature, Moisture, and Atmospheric Stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 584-597.

    • Minnett, P. J., R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, 2001: The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: A High-Accuracy, Seagoing Infrared Spectroradiometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 18, 994-1013.

    • Tobin, D.C., and coauthors, Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 um. JGR, 104, 2081-2092.

    • Turner, D. D., W. F. Feltz, R. Ferrare, 2000: Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Ground-based Active and Passive Sensors. Bull. Amer. Soc., 81, 1301-1317.

    • Turner D. D., S. A. Ackerman, B. A. Baum, H. E. Revercomb, and P. Yang, 2003: Cloud phase determination using ground-based AERI observations at SHEBA. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 42, 701-715.

  • AERI HOMEPAGE: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/aeri/

  • EMAIL: [email protected]


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Statistical Retrieval Description

  • Synthetic EOF Regression

  • ~1100 clear radiosondes from DOE ARM central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma for 1994-1996

  • Forward calculations using 60-level fast model based on AER LBLRTM

  • EOF regression conducted relating each radiosonde – spectrum (562 channels) pair

  • Regression data set is very robust since a wide variety of weather is experiences in northern Oklahoma throughout the year


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Hybrid First Guess

  • Statistical retrieval achieved during clear sky conditions (no update until a clear scene is present)

  • Statistical retrieval errors grow rapidly with altitude above one kilometer

  • Satellite profiles and NWP can be used to constrain the first guess through a simple linear interpolation between 1-2 km

  • This improved first guess constrains the physical retrieval and improves PBL retrieval profile

  • Currently combination of hourly RUC analysis/AERI statistical retrieval used over United States used to optimize the retrievals


Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer current and future tropospheric applications

Physical Retrieval Description

  • “Onion peel” retrieval methodology

  • Physical iterative recursive retrieval solution of the infrared radiative transfer equation

  • During each iteration the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio profile adjustments are made to minimize the difference between observed and calculated spectra

  • To correctly account for forward model spectroscopy and regression errors a static bias is used for water vapor (not needed for temperature retrieval spectral regions), currently bias is static but dynamic bias ties to water vapor is being considered with goal to be bias free


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