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THE COMMA. and the scoop on Mrs . Hardt!. 1. Elements of a Series Use a comma to set off the elements of a series (3 or more things) . * A comma between the last two items is optional!.

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THE COMMA

and the scoop on Mrs . Hardt!

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1. Elements of a Series

Use a comma to set off the elements of a series(3 or more things). *A comma between the last two items is optional!

Mrs. Hardt’s favorite uses of the internet are sending e-mails, looking up recipes, and researching lesson plans.

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2. FANBOYS for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) to separate two complete sentences.

Mrs. Hardt has a super healthy diet, and she is vegan.

NOTE: COMMA comes BEFORE the FANBOYS

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3. Introductory elements

Use a comma to set off introductory elements.

In the fall of 2010, the Hardts found an injured baby squirrel, nursed him back to health and named him Mick.

In fact, the Hardts kept him for three weeks while trying to find a rescue operation that could release him properly.

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4. Coordinate Adjectives.

Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives.

The designs for an expensive, modern gym should make them happy.

PUT a comma between adjectives if… *If you can put and between the adjectives *If you can reverse the order of the adjectivesMust be able to do BOTH!

EX: “A little old house” NOT- a little and old house…

EX: She often wore a gray wool shawl.

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5. PERSON, PLACE, TIME

Use a comma to set off *titles *cities/town & states/countries *day & year (in a full date)

The Hardts were married in East Brunswick, NJ, during the summer.

The wedding date was August 7, 2009, at the Farrington Manor.

Ron, the owner of Farrington Manor, made sure everything went perfectly that day.

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6. Quoted Language

Use a comma to set off quoted language.

*Quoted language = Dialogue or citations, not titles

Led Zeppelin’s song “Kashmir” starts with the line, “Oh let the sun beat down upon my face.”

Notice: “Kashmir” does not get commas just because it’s in quotes.

“I’m ready to start when you are,” the teacher said.

“We can’t win them all,” said Mrs. Hardt, “but let’s just hope we beat the Penguins.”

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7. Added Information

Use a comma to set offadded information .

*Added information is something that can be removed from a sentence without changing the essential meaning of that sentence.

Deciding what is “added information” and what is essential is sometimes difficult.

Let’s look at examples on the next slide…

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The Woodstock Farm Sanctuary, in Willow, NY, rescues injured farm animals and provides a happy and safe home for them.

Dallas, the Hardt’s kitten, loved to swat at Casey’s tail when she walked by.

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8. Contrast or TurnUse a comma to set off elements that express a contrast or a turn in the sentence.

The house was beautiful, but much too big.

They were looking for something practical, not luxurious.

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