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Conducting the Survey

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Module 2, Unit 5, Session 6

By the end of this session, campaign managers should be able to:

- Practice determining sample sizes for all of your target audiences
- Roughly identify where the interviews will take place
- Identify standard practices for training enumerators to implement the survey
- Minimize bias and error during survey implementation

Module 2, Unit 5, Session 6

- Conceptualization
- Problem you want to solve and scope of research

- Survey Design (completed) | Survey Settings (location)
- Survey Sampling | Sample Size

- Conducting the survey

- Analyzing results and measure effectiveness of survey

1. Conceptualizing your survey

- Conceptualizing includes defining:
- The problem you want to solve
- The scope of your research project

Scope:

The scope in survey research is determined by the target population, or the group of people that you want to study with the survey.

Considerations When Determining Scope

- Who do I survey, what to consider?
- Geography (location and proximity to MPA)
- Age range
- Gender
- Employment
- Gender
- Socio-economic status

2. Research Design

Survey Design (completed) | Survey Settings (location)Survey Sampling | Sample Size

- Setting: where do I survey?
- Survey Sampling: who/what group should I survey?
- Sample Size: how many do I survey?

Four Types of Setting:(Millard Brown Market Research, Ltd.)

Door-to-Door: best way to guarantee random and representative sample. Restriction: more time and resource required. (consensus data)

Other Defined Place: Conduct surveys in multiple places. Most useful in finding larger number of respondents. (business, parks, shopping centers, street corner, markets, other public places)

Pre-determined Location: Conduct in very specific locations to target a defined audience and excludes all other. (arriving tourists at airport, fishermen at docks)

Central Location Tests: specific location to conduct survey (at the end of workshop or presentation)

Survey Sampling:

Who/what group should I survey in population?

Module 2, Unit 4, Sub-Unit 1.1

Designing your Survey: Sampling

Designing your Survey: Sampling

Module 2, Unit 4, Sub-Unit 1.1

- Most important and difficult part of survey
- Impossible to interview everyone in your area (at most sites)
- You want to select a “representative” sample
- The best way is though a random sampling procedure
- No magic number to tell you how many people you need to interview

- *Random Sampling: every person in your target population has an equal chance of being selected to be in the sample:
- Ways to randomize your sample:(Target Population must first be defined)
- Simple Random Sample: choosing samples from a single pool of the population (picking from a hat)
- Stratified Sampling: You would divide this large pool of subjects into several groups (strata) and then randomly select subjects from within each group. The number of subjects selected from each group is fixed by design.

Strata (level 2)

Strata (level 1)

Stratified Sampling: Understanding Strata

- No magic number to get “valid” or “statistical significant” result.
- Three Things to Take when Choosing Sample Size:
- Population Size
- Confidence Level: tells you how sure you can be you that your sample is generally representative of the population .
- Confidence Interval: reflects your probability of having a sampling error in your survey.

- General Trends for CL, CI and Sample Size:
a) The larger your sample size, the smaller your confidence interval (less likely to make sampling error).

b) Confidence level: The larger your sample size, the more sure you can be that their answers truly reflect the population (higher confidence level).

c) Standard CL is: 95% or 99% | Standard CI is: 2.5% or 5%

How to know if statistically different?

45

35

X

X

25

K level %

15

5

0

Pre-campaign

Post-campaign

http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm

Stratified Sampling: Example

- Municipality of Bebeh = population (N) of 2500
- Composed of 4 barangays
- Sample size (n) = 333

- Municipality of Jongoland = population (N) of 700
- Composed of 3 barangays
- Sample size (n) = 248

- Do you want equal representation between men and women?
- Implication: know what time/s of day to survey

- What survey setting should I use? (door-to-door, any other defined place, etc.)
- Implication: where to specifically find subgroups of target audience (i.e: fishermen)

Treatment/Intervention/Pride Campaign

Module 2, Unit 4, Session 8

- Choosing a Control Group:
- Similar Demographic and Scope: Must be close enough to experimental group so that culture, environment, language, and other factors are very similar.
- Unexposed to Campaign Activity: Far away enough so that people in the control group are unlikely to be exposed to any of the campaign (intervention) activities.
- *note for those who read pre-reader: comparison group = control group

3. Data Collection

Actually conducting the survey

- Teachers
- University students
- Dept. of Statistics personnel
- High school students
- Lead Agency personnel
- NGO volunteers
- Hopefully for free: minimum to keep enumerators engaged (lunch, transportation, small celebration). Money spent on this is money not spent on campaign material and activities only (core funds).

- Ideally, 5-6 enumerators
- Level off
- Clarify and standardize group understanding of questions and procedure of administering survey (i.e: asking questions, randomizing, time, etc.)

- Pre-test the survey questionnaire to iron out any bugs
- Prepare schedule (date, times, jurisdictions, survey settings)
- Refer to reader for other tips

- Pleasant personality
- A professional manner
- A good listener
- A trusted person
- Language proficient
- Well presented
- Be mindful of time
- Taking “no” as an answer? – ideal response rate is 80%
- Refer to reader for other tips

- In groups of 4, design one question (single answer).
- Try to randomly interview at least 2 people.
- Compare notes.

Be courteous.

Maintain confidentiality of the interview at all times.

Introduce the survey by saying who is running it, its general intentions, and how the respondent was chosen (usually at random).

Be professional, have all your materials ready and keep to the purpose of your visit.

Be familiar with the questionnaire so if there are filters and skip patterns, you know where they lead.

Read each question exactly the same to each respondent.

Speak slowly and clearly so you can be understood.

Don’t mark an answer until the respondent states it.

If a response is incomplete, use a neutral probe, to get the respondent to fully answer the question.

Before leaving, make sure the questionnaire is completed.

Thank the respondent and leave.