Food and Agriculture. History and Types of Agriculture. Demand-based agriculture - production determined by economic demand and limited by classical economic supply and demand theory. This approach became common during the industrial revolution.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Demand-based agriculture - production determined by economic demand and limited by classical economic supply and demand theory. This approach became common during the industrial revolution.
Resource-based agriculture - production determined by resource availability; economic demand usually exceeds production. This approach was the original type of farming 10,000 years ago. Modern approaches are very high tech and somewhat more expensive.
Agroecosystems differ from natural ecosystems in five major ways:
· domesticated livestock (sheep, pigs, chickens, cattle) are an important food source for humans
· ruminants (four-chambered stomachs) contain bacteria that can convert plant tissue to animal protein/fat Þ hence, plant material originally unusable for man is converted into food sources that can be ingested by man
Wilkes, Angela. My first word board book. (1999) DK Publishing, NY.
· arable land
· Climate change
Increase food supplies
More food means food is less expensive
Effective and fast-acting
Newer pesticides are safer, more specific
Reduces labor costs on farms
Food looks better
Agriculture is more profitable
Accumulate in food chain
Pests develop resistance – 500 species so far
Resistance creates pesticide treadmill
Estimates are $5-10 in damage done for $1 spent on pesticide
Destroy bees - $200 million
Threaten endangered species
Affect egg shell of birds
5% actually reach pest
~20,000 human deaths/yearPesticides Pro and Con
Reducing Exposure to Pesticides
• Grow some of your food using organic methods.
• Buy organic food.
• Wash and scrub all fresh fruits, vegetables, and wild foods you pick.
• Eat less or no meat.
• Trim the fat from meat.
Fig. 13-30, p. 299
Polyculture instead of monoculture
Intercropping – alternate rows of crops that have different pests
Planting pest-repellent crops
Mulch to control weeds
Natural insect predators – ladybugs, preying mantis, birds
Rotating crops to disrupt insect cycles
Using Pheromones to attract insects to traps
Releasing sterilized insects
Sustainable Organic Agriculture
Biological pest control
Integrated pest management
Loss of biodiversity
Loss of prime cropland
Subsidies for unsustainable farming and fishing
Subsidies for sustainable farming and fishing
Fig. 13-33, p. 302
Improves soil fertility
Reduces soil erosion
Retains more water in soil during drought years
Uses about 30% less energy per unit of yield
Lowers CO2 emissions
Reduces water pollution from recycling livestock wastes
Eliminates pollution from pesticides
Increases biodiversity above and below ground
Benefits wildlife such as birds and bats
Fig. 13-34, p. 302
Sustainable Organic Agriculture
• Waste less food
• Eat less or no meat
• Feed pets balanced grain foods instead of meat
• Use organic farming to grow some of your food
• Buy organic food
• Eat locally grown food
• Compost food wastes
Fig. 13-35, p. 303