Ch 3 early african societies and the bantu migrations
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Ch. 3 Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations. Bantu Migrations: 2000 BC-AD 1000. Nile Valley: 3,000 BC-2,000 BC. I. Egypt and Nubia: “gifts of the Nile.” Began to emerge around 4,000 BCE. A. The Nubians established a strong realm

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Ch. 3 Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations

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Ch. 3 Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations


Bantu Migrations: 2000 BC-AD 1000


Nile Valley: 3,000 BC-2,000 BC


I. Egypt and Nubia: “gifts of the Nile.” Began to emerge around 4,000 BCE.

A. The Nubians established a strong realm

(Ta Seti) around 3400 BCE that lasted

until 3200 BCE.

B. The pharaoh, Menes, founded Memphis

and unified Egypt around 3100 BCE.

C. Egyptian chronology

1. Archaic Period (3100 BC-2660 BCE) and

Old Kingdom (2660 BC-2160 BCE).


a. Great pyramids of Giza built during

the Old Kingdom; Khufu (Cheops)

is the largest. Egypt dominated

Nubia from 3000 to 2400 BCE.

The Nubians established the

Kingdom of Kush further to the

south.


Great Pyramids of Giza (in Egypt)


Khufu


2. Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BCE)

a. Around 2040, the pharaohs regained

control after a period of instability.

b. The Hyksos (nomadic Semitic

people), aided by the use of bronze

weapons and chariots, conquered

Egypt in the 17th C. BCE.


3. New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE)

a. Under Tuthmosis III (1479-1425

BCE), the empire expanded south and

into the eastern Mediterranean.


4. After the New Kingdom, Egypt fell to a

series of foreign conquerors.

a. In 760 BC, the Kingdom of Kush

ruled Egypt for a century.

b. In the mid-7th century, the Assyrians,

equipped with iron weapons,

conquered Egypt.


Imperial Egypt, 1400 BC


What the Ancients Knew: the Egyptians


II. Egyptian religious traditions.

A. Principal gods were the sun gods Amon

and Re.

B. Brief period of monotheism with the

worship of Aten. Pharoah Amenhotep IV

(reigned 1353-1335 BCE) changed his

name to Akhenaten and strongly

promoted the religion.


Re


Akhenaten


Nefertiti (1372-1350 BCE): Akhenaten’s wife


Tutankhamun (1361-1352 BCE)


C. Cult of Osiris.

1. Murdered by his brother Seth,

legend says that the devotion of

Osiris’ wife, Isis, inspired them to

restore Osiris to life (god of the

underworld).


Osiris


Isis, Osiris, a pharoah, Horus


Bantu Migrations: 2000 BC-AD 1000


III. Bantu migrations (3000-1000 BCE) and early sub-Saharan Africa.

A. The Bantu, a language group, moved south

and west into forest lands. By 1000 BC,

the Bantu occupied most of Africa south of

the equator.


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