Ch. 3 Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations. Bantu Migrations: 2000 BC-AD 1000. Nile Valley: 3,000 BC-2,000 BC. I. Egypt and Nubia: “gifts of the Nile.” Began to emerge around 4,000 BCE. A. The Nubians established a strong realm
I. Egypt and Nubia: “gifts of the Nile.” Began to emerge around 4,000 BCE.
A. The Nubians established a strong realm
(Ta Seti) around 3400 BCE that lasted
until 3200 BCE.
B. The pharaoh, Menes, founded Memphis
and unified Egypt around 3100 BCE.
C. Egyptian chronology
1. Archaic Period (3100 BC-2660 BCE) and
Old Kingdom (2660 BC-2160 BCE).
a. Great pyramids of Giza built during emerge around 4,000 BCE.
the Old Kingdom; Khufu (Cheops)
is the largest. Egypt dominated
Nubia from 3000 to 2400 BCE.
The Nubians established the
Kingdom of Kush further to the
2. Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BCE) emerge around 4,000 BCE.
a. Around 2040, the pharaohs regained
control after a period of instability.
b. The Hyksos (nomadic Semitic
people), aided by the use of bronze
weapons and chariots, conquered
Egypt in the 17th C. BCE.
3. New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) emerge around 4,000 BCE.
a. Under Tuthmosis III (1479-1425
BCE), the empire expanded south and
into the eastern Mediterranean.
4. After the New Kingdom, Egypt fell to a emerge around 4,000 BCE.
series of foreign conquerors.
a. In 760 BC, the Kingdom of Kush
ruled Egypt for a century.
b. In the mid-7th century, the Assyrians,
equipped with iron weapons,
II. Egyptian religious traditions. emerge around 4,000 BCE.
A. Principal gods were the sun gods Amon
B. Brief period of monotheism with the
worship of Aten. Pharoah Amenhotep IV
(reigned 1353-1335 BCE) changed his
name to Akhenaten and strongly
promoted the religion.
C. Cult of Osiris. emerge around 4,000 BCE.
1. Murdered by his brother Seth,
legend says that the devotion of
Osiris’ wife, Isis, inspired them to
restore Osiris to life (god of the
A. The Bantu, a language group, moved south
and west into forest lands. By 1000 BC,
the Bantu occupied most of Africa south of