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Volume Rendering. Lecture 21. Acknowledgements. These slides are collected from many sources. A particularly valuable source is the IEEE Visualization conference tutorials. Sources from:

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Volume rendering

Volume Rendering

Lecture 21


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

  • These slides are collected from many sources.

  • A particularly valuable source is the IEEE Visualization conference tutorials.

  • Sources from:

    Roger Crawfis, Klaus Engel, Markus Hadwiger, Joe Kniss, Aaron Lefohn, Daniel Weiskopf, Torsten Moeller, Raghu Machiraju, Han-Wei Shen and Ross Whitaker

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Visualization of volumetric data
Visualization of Volumetric Data

  • Direct volume rendering of scalar fields

  • Flow visualization in 3D

  • Focus on regular grids

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Visualization of volumetric data1
Visualization of Volumetric Data

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Surface graphics
Surface Graphics

  • Traditionally, graphics objects are modeled with surface primitives (surface graphics).

  • Continuous in object space

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Difficulty with surface graphics
Difficulty with Surface Graphics

  • Volumetric object handling

    • gases, fire, smoke, clouds (amorphous data)

    • sampled data sets (MRI, CT, scientific)

  • Peeling, cutting, sculpting

    • any operation that exposes the interior

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Volume graphics
Volume Graphics

  • Defines objects on a 3D raster, or discrete grid in object space

  • Raster grids: structured or unstructured

  • Data sets: sampled, computed, or voxelized

  • Peeling,cutting … are easy with a volume model

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Volume graphics surface graphics
Volume Graphics & Surface Graphics

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Volume graphics cons
Volume Graphics - Cons

  • Disadvantages:

    • Large memory and processing power

    • Object- space aliasing

    • Discrete transformations

    • Notion of objects is different

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Volume graphics pros
Volume Graphics - Pros

  • Advantages:

    • Required for sampled data and amorphous phenomena

    • Insensitive to scene complexity

    • Insensitive to surface type

    • Allows block operations

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Volume graphics applications simulation data set
Volume Graphics Applications (simulation data set)

  • Scientific data set visualization

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


More volume graphics applications artistic data set
More Volume Graphics Applications (artistic data set)

  • Amorphous entity visualization

    • smoke, steam, fire

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


How to visualize
How to visualize?

slice

  • Slicing: display the volume data, mapped to colors, along a slice plane

  • Iso-surfacing: generate opaque and semi-opaque surfaces on the fly

  • Transparency effects: volume material attenuates reflected or emitted light

Semi-transparentmaterial

Iso-surface

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Volume data
Volume Data

Continuous scalar field in 3D

  • Discrete volume:voxels

  • Sampling

  • Reconstruction

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Direct volume rendering
Direct Volume Rendering

  • Render volume without extracting any surfaces (DVR)

  • Map scalar values to optical properties(color, opacity)

  • Need optical model

  • Solve volume renderingintegral for viewing raysinto the volume

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Direct rendering pipeline i
Direct Rendering Pipeline I

  • Detection of Structures

  • Shading

  • Reconstruct (interpolate/filter) color/opacity

  • Composite

  • Final Image Validation (change parameters)

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Direct rendering pipeline
Direct Rendering Pipeline

ClassifyShade

Reconstruct

Visibilityorder

Composite

Validate

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Classification
Classification

How do we obtain the emission and absorption values?

scalar value s

T(s)

emission RGB

absorption A

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Ray traversal schemes
Ray Traversal Schemes

Intensity

Max

Average

Accumulate

First

Depth

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Ray traversal first
Ray Traversal - First

Intensity

  • First: extracts iso-surfaces (again!)done by Tuy&Tuy ’84

First

Depth

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Ray traversal average
Ray Traversal - Average

Intensity

  • Average: produces basically an X-ray picture

Average

Depth

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Ray traversal mip
Ray Traversal - MIP

Intensity

  • Max: Maximum Intensity Projectionused for Magnetic Resonance Angiogram

Max

Depth

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Maximum intensity projection 1
Maximum Intensity Projection (1)

  • No emission or absorption

  • Pixel value is maximum scalar value along the viewing ray

  • Advantage: no transfer function required

  • Drawback: misleading depth information

  • Works well for MRI data (esp. angiography)

Maximum Smax

Scalar value S

s

s0

ray

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Maximum intensity projection 2
Maximum Intensity Projection (2)

Emission/Absorption

MIP

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Ray traversal accumulate
Ray Traversal - Accumulate

Intensity

  • Accumulate: make transparent layers visible!Levoy ‘88

Accumulate

Depth

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.



Texture based volume rendering1
Texture-based Volume Rendering

  • Volume rendering by ray casting is time-consuming

    • one ray per pixel

    • each ray involves tracking through volume calculating samples, and then compositing

    • different for each viewpoint

  • Alternative approach - using texture maps - can exploit graphics hardware

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Texture mapping

Modern graphics hardware includes facility to draw a textured polygon

The texture is an image with red, green, blue and alpha components…

… so several overlapping polygons can be composited

Texture Mapping

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Texture based volume rendering2
Texture-based Volume Rendering textured polygon

  • Draw from back-to-front a set of rectangles

    • first rectangle drawn as an area of coloured pixels, with associated opacity, as determined by transfer function and interpolation - and merged with background in a compositing operation (supported by hardware)

    • successive rectangles drawn on top

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Texture based volume rendering3
Texture-Based Volume Rendering textured polygon

Image

Data Set

Proxy Geometry

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Texture based volume rendering4

For a given viewing direction, we would like to select slices perpendicular to this direction

This requires interpolation to get the values on the slices

3D texture hardware supports tri-linear interpolation.

Texture-based Volume Rendering

volume

image

plane

3D texture mapping

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Texture based volume rendering5
Texture-based Volume Rendering slices perpendicular to this direction

  • Less-GPU intensive solution - 2D texture mapping:

    • view volume as set of slices parallel to co-ordinate planes

choose the orientation best suited to viewing direction

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Render proxy geometry
Render Proxy Geometry slices perpendicular to this direction

  • No volumetric hardware primitives...

  • Stack of texture-mapped slices

  • Generate fragments: resample volume!

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Texture mapping1
Texture Mapping slices perpendicular to this direction

+

Textured-mapped

polygon

2D image

2D polygon

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Texture mapping 2

(0,1) slices perpendicular to this direction

(1,1)

(0,0)

(1,0)

Texture Mapping (2)

(0,0.5)

(0.5,0.5)

(0,0)

(0.5,0)

assign the texture coordinates

to each polygon to establish

the mapping

Each texel has 2D

coordinates assigned

to it.

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Texture based volume rendering6
Texture based volume rendering slices perpendicular to this direction

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


2d textured slices 1
2D Textured Slices (1) slices perpendicular to this direction

  • Object-aligned slices

  • Three stacks of 2D textures

  • Bi-linear interpolation

  • Fast and simple, but consumes lots of memory

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Three copies of data needed

z slices perpendicular to this direction

y

x

Three copies of data needed

  • Different input textures are needed for different view directions.

  • Reorganizing the textures on the fly is too costly.

    • Prepare the texture sets beforehand

xz slices

yz slices

xy slices

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


3d texture based volume rendering
3D Texture Based Volume Rendering slices perpendicular to this direction

  • View-aligned slices; clip slice geometry

  • Single 3D texture

  • Tri-linear interpolation

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


3d texture based volume rendering1
3D Texture Based Volume Rendering slices perpendicular to this direction

  • Texture Interpolation

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


3d texture mapping
3D Texture Mapping slices perpendicular to this direction

Arbitrary slicing through the volume and texture

mapping capabilities are needed

- Arbitrary slicing polygon: this can be computed

using software in real time

This is basically polygon-volume

clipping

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


3d texture mapping1
3D Texture Mapping slices perpendicular to this direction

Texture mapping to the arbitrary slices

This requires 3D texture mapping hardware

Input texture: volume (pre-classified and shaded)

essentially an (R,G,B,a) volume

Depending on the position of the polygon,

appropriate textures are re-sampled, constructed and

mapped to the polygon.

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Solid 3d texture mapping

(r2,s2,t2) slices perpendicular to this direction

(r3,s3,t3)

(r1,s1,t1)

(r0,s0,t0)

Solid (3D) Texture Mapping

Now the input texture space is 3D

Texture coordinates: (r,s,t)

(0,1,1)

(1,1,1)

(0,1,0)

(1,1,0)

(1,0,0)

(0,0,0)

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Slice based rendering
Slice Based Rendering slices perpendicular to this direction

View direction

1 slice

Slices

5 slices

20 slices

85 slices

45 slices

170 slices

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Lighting and shading

C. Lao, OSU slices perpendicular to this direction

Lighting and Shading

  • 3D texture mapping with hardware tricks to achieve lighting is now feasible.

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


Lighting and shading1
Lighting and Shading slices perpendicular to this direction

  • Gradient estimation

    • Pre-computed gradients

    • On-the-fly gradients

  • Per-pixel illumination

    • Non-polygonal shaded isosurfaces

    • Volume shading

  • Pre-computed illumination

R. Crawfis, Ohio State Univ.


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