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Single Subject Research Design in a School System. Sandra Rogers, Ph.D., OTR School of Occupational Therapy Pacific University. Objectives. Review single-subject research design (SSRD) Highlight clinical utility of SSRD and provide examples of use in pediatrics

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Single Subject Research Design in a School System

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Single subject research design in a school system l.jpg

Single Subject Research Design in a School System

Sandra Rogers, Ph.D., OTR

School of Occupational Therapy

Pacific University


Objectives l.jpg

Objectives

  • Review single-subject research design (SSRD)

  • Highlight clinical utility of SSRD and provide examples of use in pediatrics

  • Problem solving to identify clients, treatment strategies to allow recording

  • Identify possible methods to implement as a school-wide data collection system


Single subject research design l.jpg

Systematic data collection in the natural setting.

Independent variable (treatment) is identified and operationally defined

Dependent measure (outcome) is identified and operationally defined

Demographic information collected

Design selection determines how variables will be manipulated

Data must be accurately & reliably collected

Data must be appropriately analyzed

Make comparisons between treatment and no treatment

Single Subject Research Design


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Characteristics of Single Subject Research Design

  • Involve only 1 person or a small group that is treated as a unit

  • Comparisons are made within subjects not between subjects

  • Responses to intervention are recorded repeatedly over a period of time

  • Responses to intervention are collected at regular intervals

  • Subject feedback is carefully monitored.

  • Process is studied as well as outcome.


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Characteristics Continued

  • Modifications in design and measurement are possible during the study, are individual and flexible.

  • Findings are directly relevant to a specified patient, can not generalize to other subjects.

  • Emphasis is on knowledge for immediate, practical use.

  • Costs are small and procedures are usually incorporated as part of a clinical routine.

  • Limitations are present


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SSR Design

  • Independent variable is the intervention

  • Dependent variable is the target variable

  • Dependent variable must be observable, quantifiable, and a valid indicator or treatment effectiveness


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SSR Design Used to:

  • Study comparisons between several treatments

  • Between components of treatments

  • Between treatment and no treatment

  • Sequential activities-training strategies or techniques to shape behaviors

  • Lots of design flexibility


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Repeated measures

  • Systematic collection of repeated measures of a behavior over time

  • Regular intervals

    • Once a day

    • Twice during treatment session

    • Once a week

      Required to observe the trend in data and evaluate the variability


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Design Phases

  • Two phases

  • Baseline phase

  • Intervention phase

  • Target behavior (dependent variable) is repeatedly measured across both phases

  • Plotted on a graph


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Baseline Phase

  • Stability

    • Consistency over time

    • Most desired to have a consistent level of behavior with minimal variablity

  • Trend

    • Changes over baseline indicate the trend of the intervention


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SSR Designs

  • AB

  • ABA

  • ABAB

  • BAB

  • Multiple baseline


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Implementation process

  • Identify a clinical interest/irritation

  • Identify a strategy (independent variable).

  • Identify an expected outcome measure (dependent variable)

  • Select a design

  • Select method to analyze

  • Write up results, interpret & share


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