Hphe 1500 dr ayers
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HPHE 1500 Dr. Ayers. Chapter 7: Basics Concepts of Fitness. Introductory points. Landmark documents: Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity & Health (1996 ) Highlighted the role of physical activity (PA) in maintaining good health. Shape of the Nation 2010

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HPHE 1500 Dr. Ayers

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Hphe 1500 dr ayers

HPHE 1500Dr. Ayers

Chapter 7:

Basics Concepts of Fitness


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Introductory points

  • Landmark documents:

    Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity & Health (1996)

    Highlighted the role of physical activity (PA) in maintaining good health

Shape of the Nation 2010

Current status of Physical Education in the American educational system

  • Healthy People 2020

    • Goals and objectives with 10-yr targets to guide national health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve the health of all people in the US


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

  • Rapid rise overweight and obesity in children, youth, and adults(see Box 7.1)

  • Obesity is now the 2nd leading cause of death in the US

  • Estimated annual economic burden of sedentary lifestyles in the US: $1.2t

  • Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy & Fit Nation(2010):

    • “High-quality physical education gives young people a chance to learn the skills needed to establish and maintain physically active lifestyles”

    • “In 2006, few schools provided daily physical education or its equivalent for the entire school year to all students.”


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Contemporary Understanding of Fitness

  • “Fitness” is the umbrella term for several related concepts (see Box 7.2, p.162)

Wellness

Physical

Activity

Hypokinetic

Diseases

Aerobic

Exercise

CV

Endurance

Anaerobic

Leisure

Activity

Body

Composition

Healthy

Lifestyle

Health

Can you define, explain their differences?


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Types of Fitness

  • Health-related fitness

  • Cardiovascular endurance

  • Flexibility

  • Muscular strength

  • Muscular endurance

  • Body composition

THE GAINS ARE FLEETING

Skill-related fitness

  • Agility

  • Balance

  • Coordination

  • Power

  • Reaction time

  • Speed

  • Cosmetic fitness

  • Looking good/“fit” is in

  • Possible negatives: eating disorders, “the cult of slenderness” (Tinning, 1985)


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

The Dose-Response Debate

  • Exercise epidemiology’s central question:

How much, for how long, and at what intensity (dose) does one need to exercise to obtain health benefits (response)?

  • Inverse and linear relationship

  • Moving from sedentary to 30 mins. of moderate PA (accumulated) provides the greatest gains in reducing the risk of dying prematurely from chronic diseases

  • Different guidelines for children/adolescents than adults


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

  • PA Guidelines for children/adolescents:

    • 60+ mins/day PA

    • MVPA aerobic 3d/wk

    • Muscle strengthening 3d/wk

    • Bone strengthening 3d/wk

    • Age-appropriate, enjoyable, variety, intermittent

  • PA Guidelines for adults:

    • 150 mins/wk moderate OR 75 mins/wk vigorous aerobic

    • Muscle strengthening 2d/wk

USDHHS, 2008


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

  • Fitness is improved when the amount of PA increases relative to a combination of GRADUAL changes in:

  • Frequency (how often)

  • Intensity (how hard)

  • Time (how long)

  • Type (what kind)


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness

  • How does SES affect health and quality of life?

  • Health is now seen as a social commodity . . .

  • How equitable is access to:

    Safe activity spaces, nutritious food, health care, health information, etc.?

  • While individual responsibility is essential, how do we ensure that as a society ALL have access/opportunity to a physically active lifestyle?


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Training Principles

  • Overload

  • Progression

  • Individuality

  • Recovery

  • Specificity

  • Regularity


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Strength Training MISINFORMATION ALERT:

  • Common error/assumption corrections:

    • Body weight and alternative resistance methods

    • 1RM inappropriate until after 17 yrs

    • Avoid overhead lifts

    • Spotting (correctly!) ESSENTIAL

    • Supervision and form emphasized for safety

    • Free weights athletes only or later in HS


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Major muscle groups typically targeted:

  • Pectoralis

  • LatissimusDorsi

  • Deltoids

  • Triceps

  • Biceps

  • Quadriceps

  • Hamstrings

  • Forearms

  • Calves (gastrocnemius, soleus)


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity

  • What makes fitness program effective ...

…for a soccer player?

…for a golfer?

…for you?

It depends on the goal . . .

Performance?

Looks?

Health?


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Measuring Health-related Fitness

  • Direct measures of CV fitness & body composition

  • Fitness tests

  • Body composition

  • Back/hamstring flexibility

  • Abdominal strength

  • Upper body strength

  • Cardiovascular capacity


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

  • Fitness Tests

  • Fitnessgram®

  • Presidential Physical Fitness Test

Reporting of results:

  • Criterion-referenced (comparison to a health standard )

  • Norm-referenced (comparison to like population)


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Interpretation Zones


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

MVPA

  • Possible assessment tools:

  • HR Monitor

  • Accelerometer

  • Pedometers

  • Activitygram

  • Metabolic equivalent (MET)

  • Each has its advantages and disadvantages


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Informal Measurement of Fitness

  • More valued by typical adult

  • Examples:

  • Simple HR check (checking threshold & recovery)

  • Tracking time and distance for the same exercise


Hphe 1500 dr ayers

Find a Friend

Share two things you learned today.

  • Due Wed:

  • Go online to one of these reports and:

  • List two things that strike you as important as a young professional

  • Briefly explain WHY each tidbit is important (2-3 sents)

  • Shape of the Nation 2010

  • Healthy People 2020

  • Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy & Fit Nation


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