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The Poultry Industry. One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry. Modern Breed of chickens. Single Comb White leghorn. Modern Breed of chickens. Single Rhode Island Red. Modern Breed of chickens. New Hampshire. Modern Breed of chickens. White Plymouth Rock.

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The poultry industry

The Poultry Industry

One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry


Modern breed of chickens
Modern Breed of chickens

Single Comb White leghorn


Modern breed of chickens1
Modern Breed of chickens

Single Rhode Island Red



Modern breed of chickens3
Modern Breed of chickens

White Plymouth Rock



Modern breed of chickens5
Modern Breed of chickens

Barred Plymouth Rock



Modern breed of chickens7
Modern Breed of chickens

White leg horn


Poultry
Poultry

Broiler

Layer


Poultry1
Poultry

Desi Breed

Desi Breed






The broiler industry
The Broiler Industry

  • Today, almost all of the poultry is raised in large operations

  • The term broiler refers to chickens which are about 7-8 weeks of age and are raised for meat.

  • Generally lighted 24 hours a day

  • Helps cut down on cannibalism

  • Process begins with the production of eggs that will be hatched into chicks.

  • Parents are selected from breeds that are large and muscular

  • Most are hybrids derived from mating of different breeds

  • usually mated through artificial insemination results in hybrid vigor


Egg production
Egg Production

  • Eggs are expelled from the hens body and the embryo develops outside the mother’s body.

  • Eggs are encased in a hard shell and can weigh several ounces

  • Process begins with the release of the ovum (yolk) from the ovary

  • If the female has been mated, the ovum will be fertilized within the infundibulum.

  • The albumin or white of the egg is secreted by cells in the magnum.

  • Chalazae is formed, It is a ropelike substance which holds the yolk in place in the center of the egg.


Egg production1
Egg Production

  • Inner and outer shell membranes are formed in the isthmus

  • The shell is formed in the uterus

  • In 18-20 hours the shell is completed and moves to the vagina and out of the hens body.

  • Some facilities collect eggs with the use of a conveyor belt

  • The egg rolls out of the nest box and onto the belt

  • Eggs must be kept clean and free from contamination


Egg hatching
Egg hatching

  • Eggs are stored at 70-80 degrees until being placed in the hatchery

  • within 48 hours after incubation begins the embryo has developed a circulatory system

  • Circulatory system sustains life by carrying nourishment from the yolk to the embryo

  • Eggs are turned at least two times per day

  • Turning eggs keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell

  • By the end of the first week, embryos are recognizable as chickens



Egg hatching2
Egg hatching

  • After two weeks, the chicks are covered with down

  • incubation takes about 21 days.

  • After hatching, chicks are removed from the incubator, dried off, cleaned, and placed in a warm dry environment.

  • The chicks are sexed and separated into groups.

  • At one day of age chicks are vaccinated and the beaks are trimmed to prevent canabalism.

  • Chicks are then placed in ventilated cardboard boxes to be shipped to the broiler house.



Broiler Breeder Placement

  • Is this chicken keep or cull?

  • Cull

  • Keep

  • If Cull, choose a reason

  • A. Cross Beak


Broiler Breeder Placement

  • Is this chicken keep or cull?

  • Cull

  • Keep

  • If Cull, choose a reason

  • A. Cross Beak

  • B. Discolored or swollen hocks

  • C. Leg or foot abnormalities


Broiler Breeder Placement

  • Is this chicken keep or cull?

  • Cull

  • Keep

  • If Cull, choose a reason

  • A. Cross Beak

  • B. Discolored or swollen hocks

  • C. Leg or foot abnormalities


Broiler Breeder Placement

  • Is this chicken keep or cull?

  • Cull

  • Keep

  • If Cull, choose a reason

  • A. Cross Beak

  • B. Discolored or swollen hocks

  • C. Leg or foot abnormalities

  • D. Crooked toes, greater than 90º


Stressors
STRESSORS

Mold &

Mycotoxins

NH3/H2S

Dust

Heat

Cold

Poor

Ventilation

Vaccination

Parasites

Rough

Handling

Loud Noises

Bacteria

Viruses

Protozoa

Poor

Sanitation

Humidity

Beak

Trimming

Weighing

Dirty Water

Pecking

Order

Nutritional

Deficiencies

Molting

Crowding

Feed

Restriction

Poor Litter

Quality



SIMILAR BASIC REQUIREMENTS

…FOR…

BROODING

NUTRITION

HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT

MANAGEMENT



WHY IS IT SO CRITICAL ?

ALL THE BIRD’S BODY

SYSTEMS ARE DEVELOPING


1-DAY OLD BROILER CHICK

RESIDUAL YOLK

IMMATURE

DIGESTIVE TRACT


Gut development

1 WEEK

OF AGE

HATCH

TOTAL MASS IS 4 FOLD

GREATER THAN REST OF BODY


DURING EMBRYOGENESIS

THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPS

BEFORE THE BRAIN


BROODING

COMMERCIAL SCALE


BROODING

SMALL SCALE


BROODING UNITS

LAMP-TYPE BROODER


BROODING

BROODING HEAT SOURCES



What is the best way to determine if the chicks are comfortable in the brooder
WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO DETERMINEIF THE CHICKS ARE COMFORTABLEIN THE BROODER ?

THE CHICKS WILL TELL YOU

IF THEY ARE COMFORTABLE


BROODING

THE CHICKS WILL TELL YOU IF THEY ARE COMFORTABLE


TODAY’S MEAT-TYPE BIRDS

GROW VERY RAPIDLY

BODY WEIGHT

BROODING

1000 HOURS

AGE

42 DAYS

MOST CRITICAL PERIOD


Gut development

….FACT….

WHEN FEED INTAKE DECLINES

GUT DEVELOPMENT DECLINES




IMPORTANT NUTRITIONAL CONCEPT

NUTRITION

IS NOT FIXED

NUTRITION

IS FIXED


NUTRITIONALLY SPEAKING

WHAT ARE THE ONLY SIX

THINGS CHICKENS NEED ?


Six major nutrients

CARBOHYDRATE

LIPID

PROTEIN

VITAMINS

MINERALS

WATER

SIX MAJOR NUTRIENTS


Very important concept of nutrition to remember
VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT OF NUTRITION TO REMEMBER

…..ENERGY IS NOT A NUTRIENT…..

IT IS A “PROPERTY” OF THREE NUTRIENTS

CARBOHYDRATE

LIPID

PROTEIN


Very important concept of poultry nutrition to remember
VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT OF POULTRY NUTRITION TO REMEMBER

MOST POULTRY

EAT THE AMOUNT OF FEED THEY NEED IN

ORDER TO MEET AN ENERGY REQUIREMENT


IMPORTANT FACT TO REMEMBER

…TODAY…

FEED COSTS REPRESENT APPROXIMATELY

75% OF THE TOTAL COST OF

PRODUCING MEAT AND EGGS


“General Nutrition”

“CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION”

1) USE THE CORRECT FEED FOR EACH AGE & BIRD TYPE

STARTER

GROWER

FINISHER

LAYER





GRIT

FED FOR ONLY ONE PURPOSE

NOT NECESSARY IF MASH OR PELLETS ARE FED ALONE


GIZZARD

GRIT

KOILIN LAYER




DAILY WATER CONSUMPTION

“BROILERS”

(UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS)

DAYS OF AGE X 6 ML


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