The poultry industry
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The Poultry Industry. One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry. Modern Breed of chickens. Single Comb White leghorn. Modern Breed of chickens. Single Rhode Island Red. Modern Breed of chickens. New Hampshire. Modern Breed of chickens. White Plymouth Rock.

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The Poultry Industry

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The poultry industry

The Poultry Industry

One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry


Modern breed of chickens

Modern Breed of chickens

Single Comb White leghorn


Modern breed of chickens1

Modern Breed of chickens

Single Rhode Island Red


Modern breed of chickens2

Modern Breed of chickens

New Hampshire


Modern breed of chickens3

Modern Breed of chickens

White Plymouth Rock


Modern breed of chickens4

Modern Breed of chickens

Cornish


Modern breed of chickens5

Modern Breed of chickens

Barred Plymouth Rock


Modern breed of chickens6

Modern Breed of chickens

Light Sussex


Modern breed of chickens7

Modern Breed of chickens

White leg horn


Poultry

Poultry

Broiler

Layer


Poultry1

Poultry

Desi Breed

Desi Breed


Chicken anatomy

Chicken Anatomy


Chicken digestive system

Chicken Digestive system


Chicken respiratory system

Chicken Respiratory system


Chicken respiratory system1

Chicken Respiratory system


The broiler industry

The Broiler Industry

  • Today, almost all of the poultry is raised in large operations

  • The term broiler refers to chickens which are about 7-8 weeks of age and are raised for meat.

  • Generally lighted 24 hours a day

  • Helps cut down on cannibalism

  • Process begins with the production of eggs that will be hatched into chicks.

  • Parents are selected from breeds that are large and muscular

  • Most are hybrids derived from mating of different breeds

  • usually mated through artificial insemination results in hybrid vigor


Egg production

Egg Production

  • Eggs are expelled from the hens body and the embryo develops outside the mother’s body.

  • Eggs are encased in a hard shell and can weigh several ounces

  • Process begins with the release of the ovum (yolk) from the ovary

  • If the female has been mated, the ovum will be fertilized within the infundibulum.

  • The albumin or white of the egg is secreted by cells in the magnum.

  • Chalazae is formed, It is a ropelike substance which holds the yolk in place in the center of the egg.


Egg production1

Egg Production

  • Inner and outer shell membranes are formed in the isthmus

  • The shell is formed in the uterus

  • In 18-20 hours the shell is completed and moves to the vagina and out of the hens body.

  • Some facilities collect eggs with the use of a conveyor belt

  • The egg rolls out of the nest box and onto the belt

  • Eggs must be kept clean and free from contamination


Egg hatching

Egg hatching

  • Eggs are stored at 70-80 degrees until being placed in the hatchery

  • within 48 hours after incubation begins the embryo has developed a circulatory system

  • Circulatory system sustains life by carrying nourishment from the yolk to the embryo

  • Eggs are turned at least two times per day

  • Turning eggs keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell

  • By the end of the first week, embryos are recognizable as chickens


Egg hatching1

Egg hatching


Egg hatching2

Egg hatching

  • After two weeks, the chicks are covered with down

  • incubation takes about 21 days.

  • After hatching, chicks are removed from the incubator, dried off, cleaned, and placed in a warm dry environment.

  • The chicks are sexed and separated into groups.

  • At one day of age chicks are vaccinated and the beaks are trimmed to prevent canabalism.

  • Chicks are then placed in ventilated cardboard boxes to be shipped to the broiler house.


Broiler breeder selection keep cull

Broiler Breeder SelectionKeep - Cull


The poultry industry

Broiler Breeder Placement

  • Is this chicken keep or cull?

  • Cull

  • Keep

  • If Cull, choose a reason

  • A. Cross Beak


The poultry industry

Broiler Breeder Placement

  • Is this chicken keep or cull?

  • Cull

  • Keep

  • If Cull, choose a reason

  • A. Cross Beak

  • B. Discolored or swollen hocks

  • C. Leg or foot abnormalities


The poultry industry

Broiler Breeder Placement

  • Is this chicken keep or cull?

  • Cull

  • Keep

  • If Cull, choose a reason

  • A. Cross Beak

  • B. Discolored or swollen hocks

  • C. Leg or foot abnormalities


The poultry industry

Broiler Breeder Placement

  • Is this chicken keep or cull?

  • Cull

  • Keep

  • If Cull, choose a reason

  • A. Cross Beak

  • B. Discolored or swollen hocks

  • C. Leg or foot abnormalities

  • D. Crooked toes, greater than 90º


Stressors

STRESSORS

Mold &

Mycotoxins

NH3/H2S

Dust

Heat

Cold

Poor

Ventilation

Vaccination

Parasites

Rough

Handling

Loud Noises

Bacteria

Viruses

Protozoa

Poor

Sanitation

Humidity

Beak

Trimming

Weighing

Dirty Water

Pecking

Order

Nutritional

Deficiencies

Molting

Crowding

Feed

Restriction

Poor Litter

Quality


The poultry industry

COMMERCIAL BROILERS


The poultry industry

SIMILAR BASIC REQUIREMENTS

…FOR…

BROODING

NUTRITION

HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT

MANAGEMENT


The poultry industry

Brooding


The poultry industry

WHY IS IT SO CRITICAL ?

ALL THE BIRD’S BODY

SYSTEMS ARE DEVELOPING


The poultry industry

1-DAY OLD BROILER CHICK

RESIDUAL YOLK

IMMATURE

DIGESTIVE TRACT


The poultry industry

Gut development

1 WEEK

OF AGE

HATCH

TOTAL MASS IS 4 FOLD

GREATER THAN REST OF BODY


The poultry industry

DURING EMBRYOGENESIS

THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPS

BEFORE THE BRAIN


The poultry industry

BROODING

COMMERCIAL SCALE


The poultry industry

BROODING

SMALL SCALE


The poultry industry

BROODING UNITS

LAMP-TYPE BROODER


The poultry industry

BROODING

BROODING HEAT SOURCES


The poultry industry

BROODING UNITS


What is the best way to determine if the chicks are comfortable in the brooder

WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO DETERMINEIF THE CHICKS ARE COMFORTABLEIN THE BROODER ?

THE CHICKS WILL TELL YOU

IF THEY ARE COMFORTABLE


The poultry industry

BROODING

THE CHICKS WILL TELL YOU IF THEY ARE COMFORTABLE


The poultry industry

TODAY’S MEAT-TYPE BIRDS

GROW VERY RAPIDLY

BODY WEIGHT

BROODING

1000 HOURS

AGE

42 DAYS

MOST CRITICAL PERIOD


The poultry industry

Gut development

….FACT….

WHEN FEED INTAKE DECLINES

GUT DEVELOPMENT DECLINES


The poultry industry

Crop fill


The poultry industry

NUTRITION


The poultry industry

IMPORTANT NUTRITIONAL CONCEPT

NUTRITION

IS NOT FIXED

NUTRITION

IS FIXED


The poultry industry

NUTRITIONALLY SPEAKING

WHAT ARE THE ONLY SIX

THINGS CHICKENS NEED ?


Six major nutrients

CARBOHYDRATE

LIPID

PROTEIN

VITAMINS

MINERALS

WATER

SIX MAJOR NUTRIENTS


Very important concept of nutrition to remember

VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT OF NUTRITION TO REMEMBER

…..ENERGY IS NOT A NUTRIENT…..

IT IS A “PROPERTY” OF THREE NUTRIENTS

CARBOHYDRATE

LIPID

PROTEIN


Very important concept of poultry nutrition to remember

VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT OF POULTRY NUTRITION TO REMEMBER

MOST POULTRY

EAT THE AMOUNT OF FEED THEY NEED IN

ORDER TO MEET AN ENERGY REQUIREMENT


The poultry industry

IMPORTANT FACT TO REMEMBER

…TODAY…

FEED COSTS REPRESENT APPROXIMATELY

75% OF THE TOTAL COST OF

PRODUCING MEAT AND EGGS


The poultry industry

“General Nutrition”

“CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION”

1) USE THE CORRECT FEED FOR EACH AGE & BIRD TYPE

STARTER

GROWER

FINISHER

LAYER


Gizzard proventriculus

GIZZARD & PROVENTRICULUS

(VENTRICULUS)


The poultry industry

KOILIN LINING


The poultry industry

KOILIN LINING OF GIZZARD

GROOVES


The poultry industry

GRIT

FED FOR ONLY ONE PURPOSE

NOT NECESSARY IF MASH OR PELLETS ARE FED ALONE


The poultry industry

GIZZARD

GRIT

KOILIN LAYER


The poultry industry

HOW MUCH WATER WILL POULTRY DRINK

?


The poultry industry

BROILER AGE AND WATER CONSUMPTION

BODY WEIGHT


The poultry industry

DAILY WATER CONSUMPTION

“BROILERS”

(UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS)

DAYS OF AGE X 6 ML


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