Review for the unit 5 test
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REVIEW FOR THE UNIT 5 TEST. Chinese Dynasties Pre-Columbian American Empires The Mongols. REVIEW FOR THE UNIT 5 TEST. INSTRUCTIONS: G o through the slides and answer each question in the packet; the slide numbers are listed for each question . The Olmecs.

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REVIEW FOR THE UNIT 5 TEST

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Review for the unit 5 test

REVIEW FOR THE UNIT 5 TEST

Chinese Dynasties

Pre-Columbian American Empires

The Mongols


Review for the unit 5 test1

REVIEW FOR THE UNIT 5 TEST

INSTRUCTIONS:

Go through the slides and answer each question in the packet; the slide numbers are listed for each question


The olmecs

The Olmecs

Mesoamerica is an area of Central America and Mexico where the Olmecs and later civilizations like the Mayans and Aztecs were based


Review for the unit 5 test

The Olmecs were considered the “mother culture” because they influenced later civilizations, such as the Mayans and Aztecs


Review for the unit 5 test

The Mayans invented a system of writing based on pictures called glyphs; this pictogram form of writing is similar to the system used by the Ancient Egyptians (and the two societies had NOTHING to do with each other, being located thousands of miles apart)


Review for the unit 5 test

The Aztecs survived on tribute from people they conquered and also by farming; they built “floating gardens” in Lake Texcoco (called “chinampas”)


Review for the unit 5 test

Aztecs worshipped many gods, especially the sun god; they made thousands of human sacrifices each year to the sun god

A century of brutal rule over the provinces and millions of human sacrifices over the years led to hatred of the Aztecs and many revolts


The incas

The Incas

AZTECS

INCAS

While the Aztecs had their empire in Mesoamerica, the Incas had an empire of their own, dominating the area of the Andes Mountains in South America


Review for the unit 5 test

Like most other empires (such as the Romans) the Inca Empire had an extensive system of roads that connected all of the parts of their territory


Review for the unit 5 test

Using advanced technology, the Mayans, the Aztecs, and the Incas all built complex, advanced cities with elaborate temples

MAYAN RUINS: “CHICHEN ITZA”


Review for the unit 5 test

Using advanced technology, the Mayans, the Aztecs, and the Incas all built complex, advanced cities with elaborate temples

AZTEC CITY OF TENOCHTITLAN


Review for the unit 5 test

Using advanced technology, the Mayans, the Aztecs, and the Incas all built complex, advanced cities with elaborate temples

INCAN “TEMPLE OF THE SUN”


Review for the unit 5 test

The Incas lived in the difficult physical environment of the mountains; they adapted to their environment by building cities in the mountains and connecting them with suspension bridges


Review for the unit 5 test

The Incas invented a system of record keeping (called quipu) based on knotted ropes


Review for the unit 5 test

The demise of the Aztecs and Incas came when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in America and conquered the two empires


Review for the unit 5 test

By the year 589, China was unified again and a strong central government was restored under the Tang Dynasty

The Tang emperors brought back the examination system based on Confucius to find qualified, intelligent government workers


Review for the unit 5 test

Technologies such as paper-making, compasses, and gunpowder made their way outside of Asia and west by the trade route known as the Silk Road


Review for the unit 5 test

Increased trade led to cultural diffusion in Asia; China’s centralized government, Confucianism, and their writing system spread to neighboring areas, like Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia


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Differing from earlier dynasties like the Han, Tang and Song emperors actually encouraged foreign trade (previously, they had tried to avoid trading with foreigners)


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From 1405 to 1433, Zheng He explored areas along the Indian Ocean, Arabia, and East Africa, expanded trade, made contact with other cultures, and collected tribute from foreigners


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During the Tang and Song Dynasties, China experienced an extended “golden age”; new contributions were made in the arts and sciences


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The orange arrows show where Buddhism spread in Asia

Increased trade helped spread Buddhism throughout China


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The End of China’s Golden Age

The Mongols conquered China, ending their “golden age”; the Mongols would go on to create the largest land empire in human history, taking over most of Asia and parts of Europe


Who were the mongols

Who were the Mongols?

The Mongols were among the numerous nomadic tribes who lived in the steppes of Central Asia


Review for the unit 5 test

The Mongols lived in the Asian steppes, so Mongolia was a region where only the strong survived

Steppes are dry, windy grasslands; harsh climates and extreme temperatures of the steppes were the main features of Mongolia’s geography


Review for the unit 5 test

From 1200 to 1206, Genghis Khan (“Universal Ruler”) united all of the Mongol clans under his rule

Equally intelligent and vicious, Genghis Khan would lead the creation of the Mongol Empire, the largest land empire in human history


Review for the unit 5 test

As brilliant a strategist as Genghis Khan was, his greatest weapon was the spread of terror

As the Mongols’ fearsome reputation spread, many towns and villages would surrender without a fight

As a 13th Century historian wrote of the Mongols: “They are inhuman, more like monsters than men. They are the Devil’s Horsemen.”


Review for the unit 5 test

After conquering China, Genghis Khan and the Mongols took over most of Central Asia

Future Mongol leaders after Genghis increased Mongol borders to its greatest extent, which was the largest land empire in history


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When the Mongols destroyed the city of Kiev, this would lead to the Russians developing the city of Moscow (which is now Russia’s capital)


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While merciless in battle, the Mongols were surprisingly tolerant of their conquered subjects in times of peace

The Mongols never forced their way of life on conquered people; instead they often adopted cultures of those they ruled over


Review for the unit 5 test

From the mid-1200s to the mid-1300s, the rule of the Mongols was a time of peace and stability

This era of stability was called “PaxMongolica”, which means “Mongol Peace”

Safe passage was granted for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries (this makes PaxMongolica similar to PaxRomana)

Because of the safety of PaxMongolica, there was enormous increase in trade between Asia and Europe through the Silk Road


Marco polo s travels

MARCO POLO’S TRAVELS

Marco Polo traveled throughout Asia and Europe, making a written record that would later increase Europe’s interest in Asian luxury goods


Review for the unit 5 test

The Muslim pilgrim Ibn Battuta, who traveled 73,000 miles in his lifetime, also kept written records of his journeys throughout Africa and Asia


Review for the unit 5 test

When Marco Polo returned to Italy in 1292, he wrote a book about his travels; his stories of China increased European demand for Asian products, which increased trade


Review for the unit 5 test

Kublai Khan began a new era in China called the Yuan Dynasty

Kublai enjoyed Chinese culture so much that he moved the Mongolian capital to China

However, Kublai and other Mongol rulers excluded the Chinese from serving in leadership positions; this would create Chinese resentment towards their Mongol rulers


Review for the unit 5 test

Kublai Khan proved to be a good emperor for China

Under Kublai, foreign trade with China increased; he built roads and extended the Grand Canal to improve transportation


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A negative effect of the trade between Europe and Asia: diseases like the Plague (Black Death) made their way from Asia to Europe along the trade routes and killed millions of people


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THE MONGOLS’ IMPACT

What were the effects of Mongol rule?

  • Millions of people lost their lives to the ravages of the Mongol army

  • However, the Mongols brought about a time of stability and peace as they ruled (“PaxMongolica”, or “Mongol Peace")

  • Marco Polo’s time with the Mongols increased European interest in Asia

  • This was good for trade, so there was more exchange of goods between Europe and Asia than ever before

  • Europe gained new technology (gunpowder)


Review for the unit 5 test

NEXT, REVIEW SOME MATERIAL FROM THE PREVIOUS FOUR UNITS TO REFRESH YOUR MEMORIES


Review for the unit 5 test

Chinese civilization began along the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers in North China; these rivers provided fertile soil

As a result, population in China is concentrated most on the coast and near the rivers


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China was protected and isolated from outsiders by deserts and the Himalayan Mountains


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Differences Among Greek City-States

The Greek city-state of Athens had a direct democracy, a government ruled by male citizens who vote on decisions


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Alexander the Great’s legacy was not his empire-building; the most significant effect of his conquests was spreading Greek innovations and Hellenistic culture throughout his empire


The pax romana

THE PAX ROMANA

After Rome’s trade and territory increased, Julius Caesar was assassinated by senators who feared his power; Julius’ death led to Augustus Caesar taking revenge, then becoming Rome’s first emperor

Augustus’ 41 year reign marked the beginning of a 207-year era of peace, wealth, and expansion called the “PaxRomana” (“Roman Peace”) from 27 BCE to 180 CE

Pax Romana


Review for the unit 5 test

University in Timbuktu

Determined to spread Islam, Mansa Musa built numerous mosques and universities, making Timbuktu a major learning center

Mali was always powerful because of its control of the gold-salt trade, but after King Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca, things changed


Review for the unit 5 test

FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SALAT

  • The Second Pillar of Islam is Salat, which means “daily ritual prayer”; prayer must be done five times per day (dawn, noon, midday, sunset, and at night)


Review for the unit 5 test

The Eastern Roman Empire later became known as the BYZANTINE EMPIRE

While the Western Roman Empire collapsed and was taken over…

…the Eastern side of the Roman Empire remained strong and intact


How did physical geography impact the byzantine capital of constantinople

How did physical geography impact the Byzantine capital of Constantinople?

  • Text

  • Constantinople was a crossroads for trade and business between Europe, Asia, and Africa because of its location; this trade made the Byzantine Empire very wealthy


Review for the unit 5 test

The way that people got protection from outside invaders was by turning to local lords and noblemen instead of the nation’s king

This began a new political and social system called feudalism

Feudalism is a system in which land is exchanged for military service and loyalty


Effects of the crusades

Effects of the Crusades

They increased desires for luxury goods like silk, cotton, sugar, and spices

The Crusades brought cultural diffusion and introduced new ideas into Western Europe from the Middle East and Asia

They introduced technologies like compass, astrolabe, ship designs, and gunpowder

They introduced ideas like Arabic numbers, chemistry, algebra, and telescopes


Review for the unit 5 test

IF YOU HAVE CORRECTLY ANSWERED ALL OF THE QUESTIONS ON YOUR REVIEW PACKET, YOU WILL BE READY FOR THE UNIT 5 TEST


Review for the unit 5 test

Originally created by

Christopher Jaskowiak


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