Skin integumentary system
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Skin (Integumentary system). Functions Protection Prevents water exchange Insulation, heat exchange Holds things in Cushions Excretion Immune Sense receptors Synthesis of vitamin D. Structure Two layers of tissue Epidermis-stratified squamous Become keratinized (tough)

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Skin (Integumentary system)

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Skin integumentary system

Skin (Integumentary system)

  • Functions

    • Protection

    • Prevents water exchange

    • Insulation, heat exchange

    • Holds things in

    • Cushions

    • Excretion

    • Immune

    • Sense receptors

    • Synthesis of vitamin D


Skin integumentary system

  • Structure

    • Two layers of tissue

      • Epidermis-stratified squamous

        • Become keratinized (tough)

        • Separation of layers causes blisters

        • Occurs from friction or burns

      • Dermis-dense connective tissue

      • Subcutaneous (hypodermis)

        • NOT part of skin

        • Mostly adipose tissue


Skin integumentary system

  • Epidermis-composed of 5 strata (layers)-Deep to superficial

    • Stratum germinativum (basale)-undergoes cell division, receives blood

    • Stratum spinosum-flatter and more keratin (water-proofing layer)

    • Stratum granulosum-flatter and more keratin

    • Stratum lucidum-only occur where there is no hair, extra thick, no blood, lots of keratin-soles and palms

    • Stratum corneum-thickest layer (20-30 cells), full of keratin, completely dead

      • New epidermis every 25-45 days


Skin integumentary system

  • Dermis-hide (leather products)-superficial to deep

    • Papillary

      • Dermal papillae-projections that form ridges on surface of skin

        • Capillary loops-nourishment

        • Meissner’s corpuscles-touch receptors

        • Leave films of sweat behind-fingerprints


Skin integumentary system

  • Reticular layer-deepest layer of skin

    • Sweat and oil glands

    • Pacinian corpuscles-pain receptors

    • Many phagocytes-stop bacteria

    • Collagen and elastic fibers (DCT)

    • When body temperature rises, capillaries become dilated, heat leaves skin, causes redness

    • Decubitus ulcers (bedsores) –weight of body puts pressure on skin, restricts blood, cells die, skin cracks and sores


Skin integumentary system

  • Skin color

    • Amount and kind of melanin (yellow, red, brown)-found in stratum germinativum

      • Lots of melanin-brown skin-exposure to sun

    • Amount of carotene (yellow-orange)

      • Stratum corneum

      • Eating orange foods


Skin integumentary system

  • Amount of oxygen in blood (red)

    • Less melanin will allow to see easier

    • Cyanosis-bluish skin, poor oxygen

  • Emotions

    • Redness-embarrassed, fever, hypertension

    • Pallor (paleness)-stress, fear, anemia, low BP


Skin integumentary system

  • Jaundice (yellow)- liver disorder

  • Bruises-blood clotting under surface of skin

    • Easily bruised-lack of Vitamin C

    • Hematomas-bruising


Skin integumentary system

  • Appendages

    • Cutaneous glands-exocrine (ducts)

      • Sweat glands-2.5 million per person

        • Eccrine glands-produce sweat (water salt vitamins, nitrogen, lactic acid)

          • Empty in pores

          • Regulate heat

        • Apocrine glands-axillary and pubic regions

          • Empty into hair follicles

          • Contains fats and proteins

          • Bacteria use fats and make smell

          • Precise function is unknown-pain, stress, foreplay


Skin integumentary system

  • Sebacous glands-oil, everywhere except palms and soles

    • Secrete sebum (oil)-keeps skin moist and prevents hair from being brittle

      • Contains chemicals killing bacteria

      • Highly active during puberty

      • If blocked-whitehead, blackhead, acne


Skin integumentary system

  • Hair and hair follicles

    • Found in epidermis

    • Functions-protection (eyebrows and nose hairs), warmth

    • Root-part of hair in follicles

    • Shaft-projection from follicle

    • Three layers-medulla, cortex, and cuticle

      • Wearing away of cuticle, causes split ends

      • Melanin is hair color

    • Hair follicle-part that forms hair

      • Arrector pili muscles-pulls hair upright when cold or frightened (goose bumps)


Skin integumentary system

  • Nails-hoof or claw of animal

    • Nail matrix-responsible for growth

    • Nails become keratinized and die


Skin integumentary system

  • Homeostatic Imbalance

    • Athlete’s foot-itch caused by fungus

    • Boils and carbuncles-infection of hair follicle

    • Cold sores-small fluid filled blisters that itch, can be caused by herpes virus

    • Contact Dermatitis-caused by poison ivy, etc. (chemicals)

    • Impetigo-pink water filled lesion that develop yellow crust (bacterial)

    • Psoriasis-red lesions could be hereditary


Skin integumentary system

  • Burns

    • Rules of 9-divides body to easily quantify burn

    • 1st degree-only epidermis is damaged (sunburn)

    • 2nd degree-epidermis and dermis, blisters form-most painful

    • 3rd degree-destroys entire skin, growth of skin is not possible, not painful (burns nerves), infection, circulatory problems, water loss


Skin integumentary system

  • Cancer

    • ABCD

      • Asymmetrical borders

      • Border irregularity

      • Colors

      • Diameter > 6mm

    • Basal Cell Carcinoma-least malignant, most common, affects stratum germinativum, shiny with white edges

    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma-scaly reddened lesions. Thought to be sun-induced

    • Malignant Melanoma-only 5% of skin cancers, spread rapidly, 50% chance of survival


Skin integumentary system

  • Developmental Aspects

    • Decreased subcutaneous-elderly are cold

    • Thinning of skin-more bruising

    • Loss of elasticity-wrinkles, sped up by sun

    • Hair balding-by age 50 1/3 of hair follicles are gone, also male pattern baldness (genetic)

    • Hair graying-caused by delayed action gene-decreases melanin production


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