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Islam. A Brief Introduction. slm or salaam Peace or Wholeness Submission Participial Form – Muslim – one who submits. Some Initial Ideas. 1.2 million Muslims 56 countries Fastest growing religion in the world. Only 20% of Muslims are Arab Most Arabs are Muslim; most Muslims are not Arab

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Islam

A Brief Introduction


slm or salaam

Peace or Wholeness

Submission

Participial Form – Muslim – one who submits

Some Initial Ideas


1.2 million Muslims

56 countries

Fastest growing religion in the world

Only 20% of Muslims are Arab

Most Arabs are Muslim; most Muslims are not Arab

Largest Muslim population is in Indonesia

Figures


Muhammad

  • Born c.570 CE near Makkah

  • Father Abdullah

  • Mother Amina

  • Grandfather Abd-al-Muttalib

  • Uncle Abu-Talib


Major Life Events

  • Met Khadijah at 25

  • 610 first of his revelations

  • 619 Abu-Talib dies; marries Sawdah


Night of Ascents

Conversations with important figures in biblical history

Muslim rules for prayer revealed

Lailat ul-Miraj


Fled from Makkah to Yathrib in 622

Yathrib becomes Madinat or City of the Prophet

Madinat and Makkah at war for a number of years

Muhammad eventually rules both cities before his death in 632.

More Life Events


caliph = successor

Four Rightly Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr (632-634)

Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644)

Uthman ibn Affan (644-656)

Ali (656-661)

Caliphate


Ali

Married to Fatima (only surviving child of Muhammad and Khadijah)

Cousin of Muhammad

Partisans who favored him called Shiah

Once Ali was caliph

Challenged by Aisha (widow of Muhammad and daughter of Abu Bakr)

Mu’awiyah (Umayyad and governor of Syria)

Kharajites

Umayyad Dynasty 661-750

Questions of Succession


85% Sunni

Four Rightly Guided

Political and Military leadership key – not religious

15% Shiah

Power grab by Sunni

Direct descendents of prophet’s family

Not a prophet but still inspired

Sunni and Shia(h)


Zaydi or Fivers

Zayd ibn Alia

Yemen 893-1963

Isma’ili or Seveners

Jafar al-Sadiq

Agha Khan

Twelvers

Muhammad al-Muntazar

mujtahids

Current Agha Khan

Shiah


Tariqah – spiritual or interior path

Started as a reform movement

Feasting, poverty, celibacy, rhythmic chanting, breathing exercises, whirling dervish

Sufi


Basic Duties and Obligations of all Muslims

Explain the relationship between the believer and Allah

Number One: Shahadah

There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger

Public declaration before two witnesses

Five Pillars of Islam


Five times daily

Fajr, zuhr, asr, maghrib, isha

Wudu or ritual cleansing

No shoes

Proper Dress

Rakah

Salat al-jama’ah

Number Two: Salah


Purity

Charity

At the end of the year, if you have 85 grams of gold after expenses, you give at a rate of 2.5%

Number Three: Zakah


During the month of Ramadan

No food, water, smoking or sex during daylight hours

Menstruating, pregnant, nursing women are exempt as are the sick, elderly, and young children

Those in military service or on a long journey are also exempt

Donate cost of meals if you cannot do the fast

Number Four: Sawm or Fasting


Number Five: Hajj or Pilgrimage

  • Dhu al-Hijah

  • Haram

  • Ihram

  • Tawaf

  • Ka’aba

  • Once in your lifetime


Qur’an means ‘recitation’

It was revealed to Muhammad over 23 yrs (610-622) by the angel Gabriel

Oral and fluid in his lifetime

The “Satanic Verses” were once heard, but later declared not right

Scripture


Zayd ibn Thabit

Abu Bakr

Uthman

114 surahs

Verses are ayah/ayat

Tajwid – proper pronunciation

Tilawah – reading with all of your heart, soul, mind, strength

More on the Qur’an


Talk or speech

Story or matn

List of names or isnad

Hadith qudsi

Divine revelations

Hadith sharif

About Muhammad’s life

Provide the Sunnah or the foundation used to develop Shariah (Islamic legal system

Hadith


Four Sources

Qur’an

Hadith

Qiyas (analytical reasoning)

Use analogies

Ijma (Consensus)

Ulama or religious scholars

Two Main Divisions

Ibadat

Fundamental duties or obligations

Muamalat

Contract, International, Family Law. Social Duties.

Shariah


Muhammad ibn Abd-Wahab (1703-1791)

Muwahiddun

Brotherhood of Ikhwan

Neo-Wahabbism

Ikhwan

Salifiyya

Taliban

Key Dates

1811

1818

1821-1833

1884

1889

1902

1932

Wahhabi


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