Ch1 content analysis knowledge organization
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CH1: Content Analysis knowledge organization. Web is too big to organize?. One billion pages. 1.5 million pages added daily. Why organize in the internet?. Even if you only have a few hundred files, finding them again can take ages. Media archives have millions of files.

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CH1: Content Analysis knowledge organization

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Ch1 content analysis knowledge organization

CH1: Content Analysisknowledge organization


Web is too big to organize

Web is too big to organize?

  • One billion pages.

  • 1.5 million pages added daily.


Why organize in the internet

Why organize in the internet?

  • Even if you only have a few hundred files, finding them again can take ages.

  • Media archives have millions of files.

  • Footage/recordings/documents that can’t be found have no value.

  • Free text search only takes you so far .


Why not just use google

Why not just use Google?

  • Synonyms and misspellings.

  • Disambiguation .

  • Imperfect knowledge .

  • Meaning beyond the words.

  • Comprehensiveness.

  • Audio-visual assets.


Professional knowledge organization

Professional knowledge organization

a core function of the information professional:

  • - to avoid chaos!

    • how many published items?

      • In the US + UK 2005: 378,000

    • how many resources on the web?

      • January 2007: 106,875,138 January 2009 : 9 billion?

  • - to present resources in an orderly and predictable manner.

  • - to enable access to specific content.

  • - to aid retrieval of specific items.

  • - to support exchange of information through the use of standard formats.


How do users look for information

How do users look for information?

Retrieval function of KO (knowledge organization)

  • users may search for specific items - known item retrieval.

  • they may search for items characterized by some particular feature.

    • books by a certain author, document forms, etc.

  • they may look for specific information.

    Browsing function of KO(knowledge organization)

  • they may want to see what is available.

  • they may not know what terms to use.


How does knowledge organization support these two approaches

How does knowledge organization support these two approaches?

  • the processes of enabling access to knowledge:-

  • labelling resources.

    • classification

    • indexing

    • tagging

  • building vocabularies.

  • creating formal records to represent resources.

    • cataloguing

    • bibliographic description

    • metadata schemes

  • creating systematic structures to hold information.

  • Classifications:-

    • taxonomies

    • concept and topic maps

    • ontologies


Labelling resources

Labelling resources:

  • adding information to a resource about its subject content

  • classification

    • classification schemes and codes

  • subject cataloguing

    • subject heading lists

  • indexing

    • controlled vocabularies, thesauri, keyword lists

  • metadata schema

  • tagging

    • usually uncontrolled


Creating formal records to represent items

Creating formal records to represent items

  • listing characteristics of an item that represent it

    • what it’s called? name, title

    • who created it? author, creator

    • who published it? publisher (commercial, institutional, personal)

    • when and where? place of publication, web address

    • what’s it about? subject descriptors, classification codes

    • physical attributes? size, dimensions, file type, references, illustrations

  • representing these as fields in a database or equivalent structure

  • using rules to ensure conformity of entries


Systematic structures for the ordering of knowledge

Systematic structures for the ordering of knowledge

  • sometimes there is a need to present information in a structured way.

  • physical organization: materials in a physical collection.

  • listing: presentation of items such as a subject bibliography or index.

  • display: browsing interface of a digital collection.


Systematic structures for the ordering of knowledge1

Systematic structures for the ordering of knowledge

  • it will be necessary to group items according to subject.

  • this is often described as classification or categorization.

  • the structure can be linear (as in a classification).

  • the structure can be two-dimensional (as in a concept map).

  • hypertext can be used to represent different levels of a hierarchy (as in taxonomies).


Documentary classification for medicine

Documentary classification for medicine


Taxonomy of government resources

Taxonomy of government resources


Concept map for concept maps

Concept map for concept maps


How do we go about making a ko structure

How do we go about making a KO structure?

  • don’t muddle the design of the interface with the structure of the information.

  • data must be well structured to support browsing and retrieval.

  • the sequence of topics must be logical.

  • the relationships between topics must be clear.

  • overall the structure must be understandable and predictable.


Top down and bottom up classifications

Top-down and bottom-up classifications

  • traditionally classifications were made by repeated subdivision of classes into smaller and smaller units.

  • this tends to create rather rigid and abstract classifications.

  • modern methods tend to work by clustering or grouping concepts to form classes.

  • this method creates more flexible systems, more closely related to reality.


Tree structures

Tree structures


Clustering structures

Clustering structures


Sorting and grouping

Sorting and grouping

  • this is the first stage in organizing a collection of objects or concepts.

  • different attributes may be used as the basis of the classification.

  • a whole variety of different (but quite valid) classifications can be made by varying the criteria for arrangement.


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