Ch1 content analysis knowledge organization
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CH1: Content Analysis knowledge organization. Web is too big to organize?. One billion pages. 1.5 million pages added daily. Why organize in the internet?. Even if you only have a few hundred files, finding them again can take ages. Media archives have millions of files.

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Ch1 content analysis knowledge organization

CH1: Content Analysisknowledge organization


Web is too big to organize
Web is too big to organize?

  • One billion pages.

  • 1.5 million pages added daily.


Why organize in the internet
Why organize in the internet?

  • Even if you only have a few hundred files, finding them again can take ages.

  • Media archives have millions of files.

  • Footage/recordings/documents that can’t be found have no value.

  • Free text search only takes you so far .


Why not just use google
Why not just use Google?

  • Synonyms and misspellings.

  • Disambiguation .

  • Imperfect knowledge .

  • Meaning beyond the words.

  • Comprehensiveness.

  • Audio-visual assets.


Professional knowledge organization
Professional knowledge organization

a core function of the information professional:

  • - to avoid chaos!

    • how many published items?

      • In the US + UK 2005: 378,000

    • how many resources on the web?

      • January 2007: 106,875,138 January 2009 : 9 billion?

  • - to present resources in an orderly and predictable manner.

  • - to enable access to specific content.

  • - to aid retrieval of specific items.

  • - to support exchange of information through the use of standard formats.


How do users look for information
How do users look for information?

Retrieval function of KO (knowledge organization)

  • users may search for specific items - known item retrieval.

  • they may search for items characterized by some particular feature.

    • books by a certain author, document forms, etc.

  • they may look for specific information.

    Browsing function of KO(knowledge organization)

  • they may want to see what is available.

  • they may not know what terms to use.


How does knowledge organization support these two approaches
How does knowledge organization support these two approaches?

  • the processes of enabling access to knowledge:-

  • labelling resources.

    • classification

    • indexing

    • tagging

  • building vocabularies.

  • creating formal records to represent resources.

    • cataloguing

    • bibliographic description

    • metadata schemes

  • creating systematic structures to hold information.

  • Classifications:-

    • taxonomies

    • concept and topic maps

    • ontologies


Labelling resources
Labelling resources: approaches?

  • adding information to a resource about its subject content

  • classification

    • classification schemes and codes

  • subject cataloguing

    • subject heading lists

  • indexing

    • controlled vocabularies, thesauri, keyword lists

  • metadata schema

  • tagging

    • usually uncontrolled


Creating formal records to represent items
Creating formal records to represent items approaches?

  • listing characteristics of an item that represent it

    • what it’s called? name, title

    • who created it? author, creator

    • who published it? publisher (commercial, institutional, personal)

    • when and where? place of publication, web address

    • what’s it about? subject descriptors, classification codes

    • physical attributes? size, dimensions, file type, references, illustrations

  • representing these as fields in a database or equivalent structure

  • using rules to ensure conformity of entries


Systematic structures for the ordering of knowledge
Systematic structures for the ordering of knowledge approaches?

  • sometimes there is a need to present information in a structured way.

  • physical organization: materials in a physical collection.

  • listing: presentation of items such as a subject bibliography or index.

  • display: browsing interface of a digital collection.


Systematic structures for the ordering of knowledge1
Systematic structures for the ordering of knowledge approaches?

  • it will be necessary to group items according to subject.

  • this is often described as classification or categorization.

  • the structure can be linear (as in a classification).

  • the structure can be two-dimensional (as in a concept map).

  • hypertext can be used to represent different levels of a hierarchy (as in taxonomies).





How do we go about making a ko structure
How do we go about making a KO structure? approaches?

  • don’t muddle the design of the interface with the structure of the information.

  • data must be well structured to support browsing and retrieval.

  • the sequence of topics must be logical.

  • the relationships between topics must be clear.

  • overall the structure must be understandable and predictable.


Top down and bottom up classifications
Top-down and bottom-up classifications approaches?

  • traditionally classifications were made by repeated subdivision of classes into smaller and smaller units.

  • this tends to create rather rigid and abstract classifications.

  • modern methods tend to work by clustering or grouping concepts to form classes.

  • this method creates more flexible systems, more closely related to reality.


Tree structures
Tree structures approaches?



Sorting and grouping
Sorting and grouping approaches?

  • this is the first stage in organizing a collection of objects or concepts.

  • different attributes may be used as the basis of the classification.

  • a whole variety of different (but quite valid) classifications can be made by varying the criteria for arrangement.


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