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Neutrino Astronomy at the South Pole. David Boersma UW Madison Lake Louise Winter Institute Chicago, 23 February 2006. IceCube Collaboration. Alabama University, USA University of Alaska, Anchorage, USA Bartol Research Institute, Delaware, USA Pennsylvania State University, USA

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Neutrino astronomy at the south pole

Neutrino Astronomy at the South Pole

David Boersma

UW Madison

Lake Louise Winter Institute

Chicago, 23 February 2006


Icecube collaboration
IceCube Collaboration

  • Alabama University, USA

  • University of Alaska, Anchorage, USA

  • Bartol Research Institute, Delaware, USA

  • Pennsylvania State University, USA

  • UC Berkeley, USA

  • UC Irvine, USA

  • Clark-Atlanta University, USA

  • University of Maryland, USA

  • IAS, Princeton, USA

  • University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA

  • University of Wisconsin, River Falls, USA

  • LBNL, Berkeley, USA

  • University of Kansas, USA

  • Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, USA

USA (14)

Europe (15)

Japan

New Zealand

ANTARCTICA

  • Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

  • Université de Gent, Belgium

  • Université de Mons-Hainaut, Belgium

  • Universität Mainz, Germany

  • Humboldt Universität, Germany

  • DESY-Zeuthen, Germany

  • Universität Dortmund, Germany

  • Universität Wuppertal, Germany

  • MPI Heidelberg

  • Uppsala university, Sweden

  • Stockholm university, Sweden

  • Imperial College, London, UK

  • Oxford university, UK

  • Utrecht University, Netherlands

  • Chiba University, Japan

  • University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Amundsen scott south pole station

ANTARTICA

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

IceCube

South Pole

Dome

road to work

AMANDA

Summer camp

1500 m

Population:

Austral Summer: ~240 people

Austral Winter: ~60 people

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006

2000 m

[not to scale]


Cosmic ray spectrum
Cosmic Ray Spectrum

?

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


High energy neutrinos

Berezinsky et al, 1985

Gaisser, Stanev, 1985

High Energy neutrinos

Beam-dump model:

p0g-astronomy

p±n-astronomy

Neglecting g absorption (uncertain) ng

Targets: p or ambient g

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Neutrino detection
Neutrino Detection

μ

νμ

W

X

X’

μ

νμ

Angle(νμ,μ) ≈ 1° (at E=1TeV)

Detected energy deposit by muon gives lower limit for energy of neutrino

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Neutrino detection1

νe,τ

e,τ

W

N

X

Neutrino Detection

νμ,e,τ

νμ,e,τ

Z

N

X

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


AMANDA

AMANDA-A (1996)

AMANDA-B10 (1997-1999)

  • 302 OMs on 10 strings

  • Ø 120m, 500m tall

  • DAQ: TDC/ADC (surface)

AMANDA-II (2000 – 200x)

  • 677 OMs on 19 strings

  • Ø 200m, 500m tall

  • Trigger rate 80 Hz

  • Since 2003: TWR

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Amanda research topics
AMANDA research topics

  • Steady sources of neutrinos

    • Point sources (e.g. AGNs)

    • Diffuse flux (with muons)

    • Diffuse flux (with cascades)

    • Atmosphere (cosmic rays)

    • Gravitationally trapped WIMPs

  • Exotics: e.g. magnetic monopoles

  • Search for sources with time variability

    • GRBs

    • Supernova explosions

    • Flarers from e.g. AGNs, magnetars

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Point source search
Point source search

Combined data from 2000-2003 (livetime 807 days)

3329 (upward going) neutrino events

Highest excess: 3.4 sigma (chance probability: 92%)

Crab nebula: 10 events, <Nbg>=5.4 (chance probability with 33 source candidates: 64%)

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Atmospheric muons neutrinos
Atmospheric Muons & Neutrinos

E deposited Nch

Get Eν and Eμ through unfolding

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Wimps from the sun
WIMPs from the Sun

c

χ + χ → ν + ν (+…)

ν

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006

l


WIMP search in AMANDA

Published in Astrpart. Phys.

Submitted for publication

Limits on muon flux from Sun

Limits on muon flux from Earth center

Disfavored by direct search (CDMS II)

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Let’s build a bigger one: IceCube

Construction: 2004-2010

(status February 2006)

In-Ice Array:

Number of strings: 80 (9)

Optical Sensors: 4800 (540)

Depth: 1450-2450m

Instr. Volume: 0.9 km3

Angular Resolution: 0.6°

Surface Array (IceTop):

160 (32) tanks (2 per in-ice string)

2 DOMs per tank

Total 320 DOMs (64)

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


LED flasher board

main board

PMT base

25 cm PMT

33 cm Benthosphere

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


High energy muons
High Energy muons

Eμ= 6 PeV

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Contained high energy shower
ContainedHigh Energy Shower

E = 375 TeV

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


High energy tau double bang
High Energy Tau(double bang)

E ≈ 10 PeV

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Ice is a quiet detection medium
Ice is a quiet detection medium

(compare: expected ~60kHz per OM in ANTARES)

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


First icetop icecube coincidence event
First IceTop-IceCube coincidence event

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Conclusions outlook
Conclusions & Outlook

  • AMANDA showed the feasibility of High Energy Neutrino astronomy with ice as the detection medium.

  • IceCube will be the coolest neutrino telescope on Earth.

  • Maybe extended with acoustic detectors (extension to EHE)

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


Extra material
Extra Material

  • Specs AMANDA (resolution etc.)

  • IceTop

  • GRB

  • Deployment

  • Flasher

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


AMANDA-II

μ tracks

pointing error : 1.5º - 2.5º σ[log10(Eμ/TeV)]: 0.3 - 0.4

coverage: 2π

Cascades (particle showers)

pointing error: 30º - 40º σ[log10(Ec/TeV)]: 0.1 - 0.2

coverage: 4π

cosmic rays (+SPASE)

combined pointing err :

< 0.5ºσ[log10(Ep/TeV)]: 0.06 - 0.1

Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 524, 169 (2004)

energy deposited in OM

time recorded on OM

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006



IceTop

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


IceCube’s First String: January 28, 2005

27.1, 10:08: Reached maximum depth of 2517 m

28.1, 7:00: preparations for string installation start

9:15: Started installation of the first DOM

22:36: last DOM installed 12 min/DOM

22:48: Start drop

29.1, 1:31: String secured at depth of 2450.80 20:40: First communication to DOM

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


All 60 DOMs

David Boersma @ Lake Louise Winter Institute 2006


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