Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813
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JEFFERSON 1801-1809 and MADISON 1809-1813. THOMAS JEFFERSON. Home is Monticello, VA Pictured on the nickel & $2 bill 1 st President inaugurated in Washington, D.C. On Mount Rushmore; a state capital named after him Declaration of Independence Died on the 4 th of July

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JEFFERSON 1801-1809 and MADISON 1809-1813

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Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

JEFFERSON1801-1809 andMADISON1809-1813


Thomas jefferson

THOMAS JEFFERSON

Home is Monticello, VA

Pictured on the nickel & $2 bill

1st President inaugurated in Washington, D.C.

On Mount Rushmore; a state capital named after him

Declaration of Independence

Died on the 4th of July

Suffered from migraines

Kept live bears on White House lawn; had a pet mockingbird

Made macaroni & cheese, waffles & ice cream popular


Jefferson third president

JEFFERSON, Third President

  • Will serve two terms; Republican; VA

  • Hates crowds and making speeches; shrill voice

  • Multi-talented:

    • AGRICULTURALIST, Author, Architect, Attorney, Linguist, Educator, Inventor

  • Probably the most intellectual, intelligent President of U.S.


Jefferson the inventor

Jefferson the Inventor

Swivel chair, folding chair

Hidden staircases, dumb waiters

First “copy machine”


The contradictions of thomas jefferson

The Contradictions of Thomas Jefferson

  • A champion of individual liberty who owned slaves all his life.

  • A fiscal conservative who dies deeply in debt.

  • An agrarian idealist who thrives in big cities

  • A master politician who fears confrontation and abhors government power except when he wields it.


Jefferson slavery

JEFFERSON & SLAVERY

“The rights of human nature are deeply wounded by this infamous practice of slavery.”

  • Inherits 5000 acres & 52 slaves at age 21

  • Inherits more later from father-in-law; ultimately number at Monticello is up to 267

  • Viewed slavery as morally wrong

  • Tried twice to pass legislation to emancipate slaves:

    • 1769, Virginia General Assembly

    • 1784, Continental Congress

  • In his draft of the Declaration of

    Independence in 1776, Jefferson blasted the

    King’s involvement in the Atlantic slave trade

  • President in 1808 – when the slave trade

    abolished


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

  • Yet, Jefferson acquired and sold hundreds of slaves throughout his lifetime,

  • Jefferson was always deeply in debt (a heavy spender) and had encumbered his slaves by notes & mortgages

  • Jefferson could not free them until he was free of debt, which he never achieved.

  • All but one of Jefferson's slaves was sold after his death to pay his debts.

  • Relationship (for 37 years!), and children, with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings

    • Jefferson’s wife died in 1782 – deathbed wish…

    • Sally was child of Jefferson’s father-in-law and one of his slaves


Election of 1800

ELECTION OF 1800

  • Jefferson & Burr – Republican P & VP

  • Adams & Pinckney – Federalist P & VP

  • Jefferson & Burr each get 73 votes

  • Election thrown into House of Reps – each state gets one vote (16 states)

    • 35 ballot deadlock – 8 days!

    • Finally, HAMILTON convinces NY to change vote

  • 12th Amendment will change electoral college – P & VP now voted for separately

  • Was there a “Revolution of 1800” with his election?

    • No, Jeffersonians did take power in White House & Congress but…

    • 1stpeaceful transfer of power in world history!

    • Kept most Federalist programs


Jefferson s inaugural address

Jefferson’s Inaugural Address :

  • Principles espoused in inaugural address:

    • Majority rule with minority rights

    • Equal rights for all people

    • Source of a government’s power is the people

    • Against entangling alliances

    • Promises to preserve gov’ts credit/pay off debts

    • Promises to stimulate commerce as well as agriculture

    • Stresses need to deemphasize party politics – “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”


Jefferson s approach to office

Jefferson’s Approach to Office:

  • Becomes a MODERATE as President

    • Did cut taxes (like Whiskey tax)

    • Naturalization Act – 5 yrs. reestablished

    • Did NOT try to alter balance of fed & state power but did have fundamental belief in strong states’ and individual rights

    • New tone: played down ceremonial aspects of presidency (“pell-mell is our law”).


Jefferson the courts

Jefferson & the Courts

  • Fundamental belief that courts consistently overstepped overstepped their bounds in decisions

    • “throwing an anchor ahead”

  • Angered that Federalists had appointed the

    “midnight judges”

  • Chief Justice – John Marshall; the cousin he hated

  • Judiciary Act of 1801 – appointing of “midnight judges”

  • Marbury v. Madison

    • Marbury sues Madison for writ of mandamus ordering delivery of his commission as justice of peace

    • Marshall ruled against Marbury……. Congress had unconstitutionally tried to give this power to the Courts

    • Established principle of “JUDICIAL REVIEW”

      • Supreme Court has authority to review acts of Congress (& P) and determine whether they are constitutional

    • Jefferson furious; seeks impeachment

The Great Chief Justice

John Marshall


Jefferson the military

Jefferson & the Military

  • Military Policies:

    • REDUCE IT! He’s “parsimonious!”

    • Use “peaceful coercion, not military force”

    • Saw large standing armies as an invitation to dictatorship

    • Why did he not fear navies as much?

      • couldn’t march inland & endanger freedom

  • Barbary Pirates & 1801 War with Tripoli

    • Tripoli declares war – Jefferson sends “Mosquito Fleet”

    • U.S. doesn’t really win, but is only nation to resist the blackmail

    • Greatest hero: Stephen Decatur

      • Captured 2 pirate ships; set fire to U.S. ship (Philadelphia) to keep it from pirates


Louisiana purchase

Louisiana Purchase

  • SP-FR transfer in 1800

  • Right of deposit revoked in 1802

  • Problem of a French Louisiana?

  • Potential loss of New Orleans

  • French designs on North America

  • James Monroe & Robert Livingston sent to FR in 1803 to seek purchase of New Orleans for $10M


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

  • Napoleon's reason for selling:

    • Santo Domingo defeat –doesn’t need LA as breadbasket

    • About to go to war with Britain

    • Hamilton also instrumental-Napoleon paid in U.S. bonds

  • Price: $15M for entire area of 828,000 sq. mi.

  • DOUBLED size of US

  • Jefferson troubled by constitutionality of the purchase but

    • Justified the purchase on basis that it was part of P’s implied powers to protect the nation


Lewis clark expedition 1804 1806

LEWIS & CLARKEXPEDITION, 1804-1806

  • Accomplished all their objectives:

    • To find the source of the Missouri river

    • Find a usable route across the Rockies to Pacific Ocean

    • Observe Indian customs, features of the land, weather, plants & animals

  • Guide/Interpreter:

    • Sacagawea – “Bird Woman”

    • Shoshone Indian, married to a French-Canadian trapper

    • York – black slave – hunting, fishing skills

    • 48 men on the 3 year expedition


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

SACAJAWEA

Stolen, held captive, sold, eventually reunited with the Shoshone Indians.

An interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark in 1805-1806 with her husband Toussaint Charbonneau. She navigated carrying her son, Jean Baptiste, on her back. She traveled thousands of miles from the Dakotas to the Pacific Ocean.

The explorers said she was cheerful, never complained, and proved to be invaluable. She served as an advisor, caretaker, and is legendary for her perseverance and resourcefulness.


Burr vs hamilton

BURR vs. HAMILTON


Burr vs hamilton1

BURR vs. HAMILTON

  • Burr leaves Vice Presidency & runs for Gov. of NY

  • Hamilton works against him & keeps him from winning; also exposes Burr’s NE secession conspiracy (Essex Junto)

  • Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel

  • NJ, July -1804

  • Hamilton fires to miss; Burr fires to kill

  • Hamilton mortally wounded; dies

  • bankrupt; Federalists leaderless

  • Burr’s career over….

    • he & LA Gov. plot to take over Mexico; arrested & tried for treason – acquitted; flees to Europe


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

  • Jefferson reelected by landslide victory in 1804 winning all but 2 states

  • BRITISH (shark) & FRENCH (tiger) back at war by 1805 & both interfere with American neutral trading rights

  • British “Orders in Council” 1806

    • Kept US from trading with FR

  • French then issue order to seize

    all merchant ships in BR ports


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

  • BRITISH IMPRESSMENT:

  • Legalized form of kidnapping where BR would stop ships, seize American sailors off of them & “press” them into service against their will (over 6,000 Americans between 1808 & 1811).


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

ATTACK ON THE CHESAPEAKE, 1807:

U.S. warship; stopped by BR for search;

U.S. refused. BR fired. Killed 3 &

wounded 18. U.S. surrendered, BR

boarded & carried off 4 sailors.


Embargo act

EMBARGO ACT

  • Americans are clamoring for war; Jefferson

    responds instead with EMBARGO ACT – Why?

    • Wanted to keep U.S. ships off seas & safe from BR & FR

    • Too “parsimonious” to build a good navy

  • Act is an economic sanction against the BR & FR that outlawed all trade with foreign countries

    • No US ships could leave country to trade – imports?

  • Effects of the Embargo Act?

    • Doesn’t really hurt BR or FR

    • Has disastrous effects for US -- goods rotting on the docks and smuggling increases

  • Repealed during Jefferson’s last week in office

    • Non-Intercourse Act substituted (reopened trade with all except BR & FR)


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

  • Jefferson’s miscalculations:

    • Extent of European dependence on American trade

    • Unpopularity of act & difficulty of enforcing it in America

  • One positive effect: Manufacturing renewed in New England


Jefferson wants to be remembered as

Jefferson wants to be remembered as:

The Founder

Of the

University

of Virginia

& the Author

of the

Declaration of

Independence

NOT as President

Monticello


James madison 4 th president

JAMESMADISON4TH President

  • Two Terms, Republican, VA

  • Had served as Jefferson’s Secretary of State

  • Jefferson’s hand-picked successor for President

  • Shortest President: 5’4” & less than 100 pounds

  • Macon’s Bill No. 2, 1810

    • Commerce restored with all countries

    • BUT any violation of neutral commerce would require reapplication of Non-Intercourse Act


James madison on slavery

Saw slavery as politically, economically, and morally wrong

Owned slaves

Indirectly freed one slave, rest were never freed

Pres. Of American Colonization Society

Felt that freed slaves could not live in white society, must be returned to Africa & compensation given to slave owners

Left $2,000 to society & proceeds from sale of his grist mill

James Madison on Slavery


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

  • An incident that illuminates James Madison's ambivalence toward the issue of slavery is the story of Billey, a body servant who accompanied him to Philadelphia during the Continental Congress. Madison wrote to his father at Montpelier:

  • "On a view of all circumstances I have judged it most prudent not to force Billey back to VA even if it could be done; and have accordingly taken measures for his final separation from me. I am persuaded his mind is too thoroughly tainted to be a fit companion for fellow slaves in VA. The laws here do not admit of his being sold for more than 7 years. I do not expect to get near the worth of him; but cannot think of punishing him by transportation merely for coveting that liberty for which we have paid the price of so much blood, and have proclaimed so often to be the right, and worthy pursuit, of every human being."— James Madison, Jr., to James Madison, Sr., 8 September 1783

  • His solution was to sell Billey to a Quaker, knowing that, by Pennsylvania law, Billey could only remain a slave for seven years and then would be freed. Billey was indeed freed, adopted the last name Gardner, and in his occupation as a merchant's agent, was lost at sea a few years later.


Tecumseh the battle of tippecanoe

Shawnee Indian; excellent leader and warrior

Formed a Confederation of Indians in the trans-Appalachian region

Brother, Tenskwatawa – the “Prophet” – a fanatic who is on moral crusade for Indians to give up white culture & reclaim their own

While Tecumseh is away, his forces defeated by William Henry Harrison at Battle of Tippecanoe

End of his Indian confederation by 1811

Westerners claimed that the confederation was actually a BR scheme & cried for war against BR

Tecumseh joins BR & dies fighting with them in War of 1812

TECUMSEH & THE BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

THE WAR OF 1812

“Mr. Madison’s War”

“The Second War for Independence”

has

  • U.S. DECLARES WAR AGAINST BRITISH:

  • Impressment

  • BR interference with US trade & neutrality rights

  • BR inciting of Indians (Westerners)

  • Land fever (FL, Canada)


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

War Hawks

  • Objections to War by the

    Federalists …. New

    England:

  • Economic reasons – would be worse than Orders in Council

  • Realism – foolish to take on strongest Navy in world

    • U.S. has only 7 frigates

  • Real threat is Napoleon – and we’re aiding him if we go to war with BR


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

  • U.S. WINS EARLY BATTLES at sea.

  • U.S.S. CONSTITUTION (“Old Ironsides”) VERY SUCCESSFUL.

  • BR are too involved in Europe fighting Napoleon to concentrate on U.S.

  • Attack on Canada will fail (poorly planned)


Commander oliver hazard perry lake erie

COMMANDER OLIVER HAZARD PERRY – LAKE ERIE


Commander oliver hazard perry lake erie1

COMMANDER OLIVER HAZARD PERRY – LAKE ERIE

  • Most important naval victory in the War!

  • Summer 1813

  • Perry’s ship shot to pieces

  • Had to row to sister ship, Niagra, during heavy battle

  • Took charge of Niagra and defeated British

  • “We have met the enemy and they are ours!”

  • Instant hero


British strategy

British Strategy:

  • After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, concentrate entire forces on U.S.

  • 3 major invasions:

  • Attack from Chesapeake Bay

    • Washington, D.C.

    • Baltimore, MD

  • Attack at New Orleans


Washington d c

WASHINGTON, D.C.

  • BRITISH WIN

  • Burn the Capitol, White House & other public buildings

    • Done in retaliation for US burning of York, Canada

  • Dolley Madison

    • Escapes from White House with original of Washington’s portrait, etc.

  • Effect: enlistments!


Battle at ft mchenry baltimore

BATTLE AT FT. McHENRY (Baltimore)

Americans win and

turn the British away after 25 hour bombardment.

BR then defeated at Plattsburg, NY - retreat to Canada & war is effectively over.


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

“STAR-SPANGLED BANNER”

Francis Scott Key


Jackson s florida campaigns

Jackson’s Florida Campaigns


Hartford convention

HARTFORD CONVENTION

  • NE Federalists – Dec. 1814 / Jan. 1815

  • To protest war & plan convention of states to revise Constitution

  • Primary concern – continuation of trade w/BR

  • New England Radicals – seeking secession (minority)

  • Proposed Constitutional amendments:

    • Repeal 3/5 compromise

    • Require 2/3 vote of Congress for war & new states

    • Reduce Congress’ power to restrict trade

    • Limit P’s to 1 term

  • Totally discredited by Treaty – why?


Battle of new orleans

BATTLE OFNEW ORLEANS

  • Americans are led by Gen. Andrew Jackson

  • Recruits militia, blacks, & pirates, etc.

  • Jackson’s plan to defeat the British?


Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

Sheltered behind earthen parapet & cotton bales.

Picked off 2000 BR soldiers as they advance in open.


But the irony of this battle is

But the irony of this battle is …..?


Treaty of ghent

TREATY OF GHENT

  • Just a Cease-Fire; an Armistice

  • A return to the “status quo ante-bellum”

  • Last treaty of peace between US & BR

  • Why does U.S. claim victory?


Effects of the war

EFFECTS OF THE WAR

  • America viewed as a major world power

  • Validity of republican form of government is established (America held off BR despite the internal frictions)

  • Federalist Party is effectively destroyed

  • HUGE WAVE OF NATIONALISM!

  • Internal improvements (transportation)

  • Indians are primary losers –esp. those opposing Jackson; US gains 23 million acres in AL & GA

  • Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817

  • Convention of 1818

  • Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 (Florida!)


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