Management development
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Management Development. Management Development. Management Development relates to the development and growth of the employees in an organisation through a systematic process. Objectives of Management Development. Improving the performance of managers

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Management Development

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Management Development


Management Development

  • Management Development relates to the development and growth of the employees in an organisation through a systematic process.


Objectives of Management Development

  • Improving the performance of managers

  • Identifying the talents in employees and to develop them to make them capable of handling managerial tasks.

  • Motivating and Updating managers from time to time

  • Improving the analytical and logical skills of employees.


Management Development Methods

  • On the job methods

  • Off the job methods


On the job methods


Off the job Methods


Unit - 2Performance Appraisal


Performance Appraisal

  • It is the process of evaluating the performance of an employee and communicating the results of the evaluation for the purpose of rewarding or developing the employee.


Objectives of Performance Appraisal

According to:

Employee

Organization

  • concrete and tangible particulars about their work

  • assessment of performance

  • mutual goals of the employees & the organization.

  • growth & development

  • increase harmony & enhance effectiveness

  • Personal development

  • work satisfaction

  • involvement in the organization.

  • measuring the efficiency

  • maintaining organizational control.

Aims at:


Objectives of Performance Appraisal


Appraisal Process


The Appraisers

  • Self-Appraisal

  • Supervisors

  • Peers

  • Customers/ Clients

  • Subordinates


Performance Appraisal Methods

  • Traditional Methods

  • Modern Methods


Traditional Methods

  • Management by objectives or Goal Setting

  • Graphic rating scale

  • Work Standards approach

  • Essay Appraisal

  • Critical Incident Method

  • Forced Choice rating method

  • Point allocation method

  • Ranking Methods

    • Paired Comparison

    • Forced Distribution

  • Checklist


Modern Methods

  • Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)

  • 360 degree performance appraisal

  • Team Appraisals

  • Balanced Score Card method


Management By Objectives (MBO)

  • Main aspects of MBO :

    • Clear and well defined goals

    • A definite time span to achieve the goals

    • Timely and constructive feedback

    • MBO is most commonly used for managers and professionals

  • The goals are set with the active participation of the employee and his supervisor.

  • The goals have to be in alignment with the organisational goals and have to contribute to their achievement


MBO Process

  • Set organizational goals

  • Defining performance target

  • Performance review

  • feedback


Graphic rating method

  • Used to rate the employees on factors like quantity and quality of job, job knowledge, dependability, punctuality, attendance etc.

  • Graphic Rating Scale includes numerical as well as written descriptions


Graphic or Linear Rating Scales

Attitude

0 5 10 15 20

No interest

In work:

consistent

complainer

Careless:

In-different

Instructions

Interested in work: Accepts opinions & advice of others

Enthusiastic about job &

fellow-workers

Enthusiastic opinions & advice sought by others

Decisiveness

0 5 10 15 20

Take decisions in consultation with others whose views he values

Slow to take decisions

Take decisions after careful consideration

Takes

decisions promptly

Take decisions without consultation


Forced choice method

  • CriteriaRating

  • 1.Regularity on the job Most Least

  • Always regular

  • Inform in advance for delay

  • Never regular

  • Remain absent

  • Neither regular nor irregular


Specimen of Staff Assessment Form [Descriptive Essay Type]

Staff Appraisal

Name . . . . . . .Job Title . . . . . . .

Department . . . . . . . . . . . . Date of Review . . . . . . .

Age . . . . . .. . Years in present job

  • Section IAppraisal Of Performance

  • Note to Appraiser

  • Appraisal must cover the period of the preceding 12 months

  • Consideration to every function & responsibility of the job

  • An objective factual assessment of an employee’s improvement or deterioration

  • Section IIPromotability & Potential

  • Promotability

  • Promotion now

  • Within 2 years

  • Within 5 years

  • Unlikely to qualify for promotion

  • Section III Career Development

  • Section IV Notes on Interview with employee

  • Section V Comments on & Endorsement by Reviewing Authority


Critical Incident method

Ex: A fire, sudden breakdown, accident

Workers Reaction scale

A Informed the supervisor immediately 5

B Become anxious on loss of output 4

C Tried to repair the machine 3

D Complained for poor maintenance 2

E Was happy to forced test 1


Forced distribution method

No.

of

employees

40%

20%

20%

10%

10%

poor

Below

average

average

good

Excellent

Force distribution curve


Group appraisal method


Behavioral Anchored Rating Scales


360 degree performance appraisal


Examples of 360 degree performance appraisal method

These companies are using 360 Degree Performance Appraisal Method

  • Maruti Udyog

  • HCL Technologies

  • Wyeth Consumer Health (WCH)

  • Wipro

  • Infosys

  • Reliance Industries


Issues in appraisal system

Formal and informal

Appraisal

Design

What methods?

Whose performance?

When to evaluate?

Who are the raters?

What problems?

What to evaluate?

How to solve?


Pitfalls in Performance Appraisal

  • Halo Effect

  • Leniency Effect

  • Stringency Effect

  • Recency Effect

  • Primacy Effect

  • Central Tendency Effect

  • Culture

  • Stereotyping

  • Perpetual Set

  • Fundamental Attribution


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