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Week of 10.1, TO DO. PPT handout, up front; plus “Big Ideas,” chapter 3 – handout POR acknowledgement sheet, up front Turn in Quiz, chpt. 3, folder up front “Pop quiz” chpt. 2, review answers, (turn in your quiz after we review the answers)

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week of 10 1 to do
Week of 10.1, TO DO
  • PPT handout, up front; plus “Big Ideas,” chapter 3 – handout
  • POR acknowledgement sheet, up front
  • Turn in Quiz, chpt. 3, folder up front
  • “Pop quiz” chpt. 2, review answers, (turn in your quiz after we review the answers)
  • Prof. Davis is finished with TILT – they will be entered this week; hard copies returned.
  • Pull out POR readings I mentioned in the email (PSC & Cohesion)
  • In-class: discuss definitions in context of RQs/Hs
iv dvs
IV/DVs
  • There is a relationship between denominational affiliation and reasons for reading Left Behind.
  • IV: denominational affiliation
  • DV: reasons for reading left behind
iv dvs1
IV/DVs
  • Protestants are more likely than Catholics to read Left Behind for instruction about “end times.”
  • IV: denominational affiliation (Protestants and Catholics)
  • DV: “instruction about end times” (reason)
iv dvs2
IV/DVs
  • Is social support more likely to be communicated with email, text messaging, or IM in dating relationships?
  • IV: type of electronic media (email, TM, IM)
  • DV: communication of social support in dating relationships
iv dvs3
IV/DVs
  • There is a relationship between church attendance and amount of religious television viewing.
  • IV: religious television viewing
  • DV: church attendance (low, regular, high)
iv dvs4
IV/DVs
  • There is a negative relationship between religious television viewing and church attendance.
  • IV: religious television viewing
  • DV: church attendance (low, regular, high)
iv dvs5
IV/DVs
  • Individuals with low communication apprehension will report significantly more positive parental behaviors and attitudes toward communication than individuals with high communication apprehension.
  • IV: communication apprehension
  • DV: (2) positiveness of parental behaviors; attitudes toward communication (amount of)
  • NOTE: high & low are levels of one variable, not 2 variables.
iv dv s
IV/DV’s
  • The older one is, the greater will be the levels of stress perceived in one’s life
  • IV: age
  • DV: perceived stress
    • note: older is a predicted direction, not variable
    • age is the variable, measured in some direction
psc article
PSC article
  • Find the H’s – there were 7!!
big ideas chpt 3
“Big Ideas” (chpt. 3)

As a result of your readings and our class discussion this weekyou should have a basic understanding of and be able to explain the following:

  • Define and explain conceptual definitions in communication research
  • Define and explain operational definitions
  • Distinguish conceptual from operational definitions
  • Identify 3 sources for conceptual and operational definitions (and the best for each type of definition)
  • Locate conceptual and operational definitions in research articles you are reading
  • Determine at what stage of the research process definitional issues are settled (see the research model)
  • Understand and apply criteria for evaluating good/bad conceptual and operational definitions.
slide11

Research Question

Hypotheses

Narrow focus

Identify topic

STEP 1:

CONCEPTUALIZATION

Chpt. 1

Define Key Concepts

Chpt. 3

Chpt. 2

Review of Literature

Chpt. 5

App. G

STEP 2: PLANNING & DESIGNING

Measurement

Techniques

Operationalizaton

STEP 3: SELECTING A

METHODOLOGY

STEP 4: ANALYZE

& INTERPRET DATA

Which Method?

STEP 5:

RECONCEPTUALIZATION

Report / Write

A WORKING MODEL OF COMMUNICATION RESEARCH

developing definitions for concepts
Developing Definitions for Concepts
  • Concepts (hypothetical constructs): things for which direct observations can’t be made
  • Definitions move us from abstract to concrete
    • Love and Interpersonal attraction
  • Definitions are statements asserting that one term may be substituted for another
  • Tell us what concepts and variables really mean
  • Isolate essential qualities of concepts
diagnostic questions for conceptual operational definitions
Diagnostic Questions for Conceptual & Operational Definitions
  • What do you mean by?

Conceptual

  • How will you measure?
  • How will you make observations?
  • What will you do to detect the presence of your variable in the setting you are studying?

Operational

10 3 to do
10.3, TO DO
  • Turn in library assignments (3 separate folders up front)
  • chpt. 3 quiz, pick up (NOTE: if you didn’t figure out how to print off % score, see me after class)
  • TILT scores are entered. Hard copies up front.
  • “Pop quiz” chpt. 3, on Monday
  • Pull out POR readings I mentioned in the email (PSC, Cohesion, and “sense of community” scale)
  • In-class: more discussion of definitions in context of RQs/Hs
slide15

Research Question

Hypotheses

Narrow focus

Identify topic

STEP 1:

CONCEPTUALIZATION

Chpt. 1

Define Key Concepts

Chpt. 3

Chpt. 2

Review of Literature

Chpt. 5

App. G

STEP 2: PLANNING & DESIGNING

Measurement

Techniques

Operationalizaton

STEP 3: SELECTING A

METHODOLOGY

STEP 4: ANALYZE

& INTERPRET DATA

Which Method?

STEP 5:

RECONCEPTUALIZATION

Report / Write

A WORKING MODEL OF COMMUNICATION RESEARCH

assessment
Assessment
  • An hypothesis that states simply that there will be some kind of relationship between variables, or some difference between groups of the IV, without stating the direction is called. . .
  • ANSWER: non-directional hypothesis
  • ANSWER: also referred to as “two-tailed”
assessment1
Assessment
  • Independent variables may be related to dependent variables in 3 ways. What are they?
  • ANSWER: 1) Positive2) Negative3) No relationship
assessment2
Assessment
  • What’s the IV/DV in the following: There is a positive relationship between perceived realism and Reality Television Affinity.

ANSWER: 1. IV = Perceived Realism2. DV = Affinity Toward Reality TV

assessment3
Assessment
  • Is this an H, or RQ? There is a positive relationship between Perceived Realism and Reality Television Affinity.

ANSWER: Directional hypotheses

assessment4
Assessment
  • What does “positive” relationship mean in his H? There is a positive relationship between Perceived Realism and Reality Television Affinity.

ANSWER: Increases in the IV are associated with increases in the DV – so, as PR increases, so with one’s “liking of”, or affinity toward, RTV

assessment5
Assessment
  • Name at least 3 sources in which you might find conceptual definitions of variables in your RQ or H

ANSWER:

  • 1. Journal articles (Conceptual Lit. Reviews)
  • 2. Specialized Encyclopedias/Dictionaries
  • 3. Textbooks
  • 4. Handbooks, Yearbooks, Annual Reviews
assessment6
Assessment
  • When we say conceptual definitions are “constitutive,” what do we mean?
  • ANSWER: they rely on other, similar concepts to describe a term.
slide23

Number of stories

LengthLanguage (+ or -)

Sources quotedPlacement

CONSTITUTIVE

SPECIFIC

Describes what is to be observed; (DV); not worried about the feeling

Relies on other, similar, concepts

to describe a term (bias = favoritism)

“Empathy”

Wispe (1987), chapter

Parella, (1971) “Toward

a Clarification of the

Concept of Empathy”

QJS

DENOTATIVE

SYSTEMATIC EG

“Dictionary Definitions” (see p. 79)

Define by relating to other concepts

Step-by-step plan to make an

observation of the concept defined

(“recipe”) (other instruments!)

FOUNDATIONAL

Necessary to later operationalize

and measure if it exists

CONCEPTUAL FIT

Preserve meaning between

conceptual and operational

SOURCES

Journal articles, Dictionaries,

Textbooks, Conceptual Lit. Reviews,

FORMS

PROBLEMS

measured, direct classification

(via observation)

Too....much, little, vague, circular, value-laded, etc. (pp. 102-104)

e gs of operational definitions
E.gs of Operational Definitions
  • PSC article
    • Conceptual definition?
    • Operational definition?
      • NOTE: Psychological sense of Community: http://campus.arbor.edu/surveys/cccusurvey.htm
  • Spiritual Gifts
examples definitions

How do we operationalize

“intimate relationships?”

Scores on a relational intimacy

scale (from 1-7)

Examples - Definitions

How is social support expressed between members of intimate relationships?

- Expression of social support = communication that reduces uncertainty about self and the other

- Intimate relationships = degree of emotional attachment

There is a positive relationship between self-disclosure and interpersonal attraction?

How do we operationalize

community?

Use Rovai’s Sense of

Community online index

- Self-disclosure = sharing info about ourselves

- Interpersonal attraction = feel personal affinity toward

What’s the relationship between an instructor’s use audio podcasts and students’ sense of community in traditional classrooms?

- Community: sense of belonging, etc. Others?

e gs of operational definitions1
E.gs of Operational Definitions
  • Will taking a public speaking course reduce one’s level of communication apprehension?
  • Example
  • Level of Communication apprehension is operationally defined as one’s score on Smith’s Communication Apprehension Scale (1982), or, one’s score on McCroskey’s Scale
are you an evangelical christian
Are you an Evangelical Christian?
  • Conceptual Definition?
  • Operational Definition? (Passion Survey) (Ideal Professor)
    • George Barna
    • Christian based on their beliefs (categorical)
  • Operational Checklist
    • 1. have you made a personal commitment to Jesus Christ (“born again”) SA . . . . SD
    • 2. my faith is still important in my life today
    • 3. I will go to Heaven because I have confessed my sins and have accepted Jesus Christ as my savior
    • 4. I have a personal responsibility to share their religious beliefs about Christ with non-Christians
    • 5. Satan exists
    • 6. eternal salvation is possible only through grace, not by being good or doing good deeds
    • 7. Jesus Christ lived a sinless life on earth
    • 8. saying that the Bible is totally accurate in all it teaches
    • 9. God is the all-knowing, all-powerful, perfect deity who created the universe and still rules it today
example
Example
  • Hypothesis: Women are more likely to watch RTV for escape and social interaction than men.

I watch Reality TV because..

1) so I can forget about work/school2) to get away from the family

3) So I can get away from what I’m doing

Agree Agree Un. D DS

Strongly5 4 3 2 1

Why do you watch Realty TV?

Have them report of reason and

motivations for watching. THEN,

group responses into categories

(content analysis)

NOTE: greater depth than quantitative.

  • Research Q: What is the audience for Reality TV shows? What reasons do they have for viewing?

Reality TV shows? -- Conceptual?

Reality TV shows? -- Operational?

Reasons/Motivations-- (Quant) Escape? Social Interaction?

(Qualit) Open-ended?

Should I use Quant/Qualit?

Research Q? Method?, etc.

checklist for conceptual definitions
Checklist for Conceptual Definitions

Contemporary Christian Music Radio: Any solid Protestant evangelical station that plays CCM for a significant portion of the regular program schedule

  • Does it include all situations or instances properly included? (too narrow)
  • Does it exclude situations or instances that are not properly included? (too broad)
  • Does it use the term defined? (circular)
  • Is it more precise than the term it is defining?
  • Does it include loaded language?
e gs of operational definitions2
E.gs of Operational Definitions
  • Small groups where Group Cohesion is high will be more productive than small groups where Group Cohesion is low
  • Example
  • Group Cohesion Scale
other examples
Other examples
  • Goddard
  • Trade Mags
  • Ko/Kg/L
  • Listening
  • Communication Competence
operational definition
Operational Definition
  • Does the show, Wayans Bros, promote racial stereotypes of African American Characters?
  • Promotion of racial stereotypes?
    • 1. Occupations
    • 2. Slang/language
    • 3. Sexual innuendo
survey examples
Survey Examples
  • Passion of the Christ

http://www.edcomresearch.com/passion.html

  • Psychological sense of Community: http://campus.arbor.edu/surveys/cccusurvey.htm.
  • Ideal Professor: http://campus.arbor.edu/surveys/idealprofessor.htm
  • Left Behind: http://campus.arbor.edu/surveys/com_survey3.htm
checklist for operational definitions
Checklist for Operational Definitions
  • 1. Empirically based and definite
  • 2. Logically consistent
  • 3. Intersubjectivity?
  • 4. Technically possible?
  • 5. Repeatable?
  • 6. Suggestive of constructs?
slide37

“Television Portrayals and African American Stereotypes: Examination of Television Effects When direct Contact is Lacking.“ (Yuki Fujioka,Journalism and Mass Comm. Quarterly, 1999, 76(1), see p. 52).

too much
Too much...
  • Communication means that information is passed from one place to another (George Miller, p. 6)
  • Professor credibility includes those behaviors exhibited by professors in the presence of students.
circular too little too vague
Circular…Too little…Too Vague
  • Professor credibility is defined as “those characteristics of an instructor that make him or her credible in the eyes of student in class.”
  • “Professor credibility is a student’s perception of faculty competence based on his or her satisfaction with the class.”
ias operationalizing attraction
IAS – Operationalizing Attraction

McCroskey & McCain, 1974

iv dv s1
IV/DV’s
  • When people are exposed to fear arousing messages, as opposed to non fear arousing messages, they will report increased levels of anxiety.
  • IV: level of (exposure to) fear arousing messages
  • DV: level of anxiety
iv dvs6
IV/DVs
  • Individuals with low communication apprehension will report significantly more positive parental behaviors and attitudes toward communication than individuals with high communication apprehension.
  • IV: communication apprehension
  • DV: (2) positiveness of parental behaviors; attitudes toward communication
  • NOTE: high & low are levels of one variable, not 2 variables. If it were restricted to a “high degree” it would be a constant, not a variable
iv dvs7
IV/DVs
  • Subjects reading persuasive messages by attractive sources will experience greater attitude change than subjects reading persuasive messages by unattractive sources
  • IV: attractiveness of sources (reading persuasive messages)
  • DV: attitude change
iv dv s2
IV/DV’s
  • The older one is, the greater will be the levels of stress perceived in one’s life
  • IV: age
  • DV: perceived stress
    • note: this one posits a simple relationship, not a difference like the one’s before
    • note: older is a predicted direction, not variable
    • age is the variable, measured in some direction
iv dv s3
IV/DV’s
  • The public’s evaluations of public relations in general will be higher when licensed practitioners engage in 2-way communication strategies for altruistic motives than evaluations of public relations in general when unlicensed public relations sources have selfish motives and the practitioner engages in 1-way communication strategies.
operational definition1
Operational Definition
  • Was the coverage of the 2007 Democratic Presidential Candidate debate between Hillary Clinton and John Edwards biased?
  • Bias is operationally defined as:
    • 1. Number of stories
    • 2. Length of stories
    • Language used
      • Positive 2. negative 3. neutral
    • Quotes1. Direct 2. paraphrase
    • Placement of stories
      • Beginning 2. middle 3. end
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