Occupational therapy and sleep in the army cdr laura m grogan otr l may 25 2010
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Occupational therapy and sleep in the army cdr laura m grogan otr l may 25 2010

Occupational Therapy and Sleep in the ArmyCDR Laura M. Grogan, OTR/LMay 25, 2010


Sleep

Sleep

A period of mind body rest during which volition and consciousness are temporarily inactive and bodily functions are partially suspended; a behavioral state that is reversible to external stimuli; a multi-dimensional construct that includes how long it takes to fall asleep, the duration and quality of sleep, and the perceived restoration achieved during sleep; a naturally occurring process


Fatigue

Fatigue

A chronic state of exhaustion

Can be experienced both physically and mentally

Can impact the ability to efficiently and effectively perform daily tasks and responsibilities

Problems with fatigue and sleep typically benefit from medical management, which includes comprehensive assessment and OT intervention


Comorbidity of symptoms

Comorbidity of Symptoms

PTSD/ASR

mTBI/Concussion

  • Insomnia

  • Impaired Memory

  • Poor concentration

  • Depression

  • Anxiety

  • Irritability

  • Stress symptoms

  • Emotional numbing

  • Avoidance

  • Intrusive symptoms

  • Insomnia

  • Impaired Memory

  • Poor concentration

  • Depression

  • Anxiety

  • Irritability

  • Headache

  • Dizziness

  • Fatigue

  • Noise/Light intolerance


Sleep disorders

Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders involve any difficulties related to sleeping, including

difficulty falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at inappropriate times,

excessive total sleep time, or abnormal behaviors associated with sleep

  • Insomnia- Problems falling or staying asleep

    • Illness, depression, anxiety, poor hygiene, medication, pain

  • Hypersomnia- Excessive sleepiness, inability to be alert or awake

    • Narcolepsy, sleep apnea, RLS, idiopathic hypersomnia, PLM movement disorder

  • Sleep Rhythm Problems- Diff. sticking to a regular sleep schedule

    • Jet lag, shift work, new parents

  • Sleep Disruptive Behaviors- Unusual behaviors during sleep

    • Sleep terrors, sleep walking, REM sleep behavior disorder

    • Sleep Apnea- Pauses in breathing during sleep. Pauses last long enough that one or more breaths are missed, and such episodes occur repeatedly during sleep


Causes for insomnia

Causes for Insomnia

  • Insomnia is like a barometer of your emotional well-being, it can occur because: You suffered a loss, are under stress or are worried, or have a medical condition that interrupts your sleep

  • Insomnia can occur if you are experiencing: Anxiety, Depression, Mania, Nightmares/PTSD

  • Insomnia can occur before symptoms of depression and can be a sign that you may need to seek help from a health care provider. It can also occur as a result of depression


Cyclic behavior

Poor Sleep

Cyclic Behavior

SLEEP MISERY CYCLE

Anxiety Depression Irritability

Daytime: Fatigue Low Energy

When you feel depressed or anxious, you have

difficulties sleeping. When you have difficulties

sleeping, you are more likely to feel depressed or

anxious. This is called THE SLEEP MISERY CYCLE

Difficulties Coping with Stress


Impact of insomnia

Impact of Insomnia

Cognitive symptoms:

  • Attention

  • Concentration

  • Memory

  • Judgment

  • Visual perceptual skills

    Physical symptoms:

  • Headaches

  • Insomnia

  • Fatigue

  • Blurred vision

  • Slowed reaction time

Behavioral changes:

  • Irritability

  • Depression

  • Anxiety

  • Sleep disturbances

  • Problems with emotional control

    Inadequate sleep can also depress the immune system & accelerate the aging process!


Sleep fatigue measurement

Sleep / Fatigue Measurement

The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a self

administered 8-item questionnaire to measure daytime

sleepiness in adults. It provides an estimate of a person’s

level of sleepiness in daily life but does not specify what

factors contribute to sleepiness or diagnose specific

conditions. It measures one aspect of a person’s sleep-

wake health status and can be used as a baseline measure

of sleep-wake health status (Johns, 1992)

http://epworthsleepinessscale.com/about-epworth-sleepiness/


Sleep fatigue measurement1

Sleep / Fatigue Measurement

The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) can be used when

fatigue is a barrier to performance of everyday tasks. The

FSS is a short questionnaire of 9 self rating questions

(Krupp, LaRocca, Muir-Nash, & Steinberg, 989)

A systematic review of fatigue measures suggested that the FSS demonstrated good psychometric properties & has the ability to detect change over time (Whitehead, 2009)

The FSS total score can help a therapist determine when a physician referral is indicated for further evaluation

http://www.healthywomen.org/content/article/fatigue-severity-scale-fss


Treatment of fatigue

Treatment of Fatigue

  • Sleep Hygiene- addresses behavioral and environmental factors that precede sleep & may interfere with sleep

  • Nutrition & Hydration- required for optimal healing, recovery & energy

  • Regular Exercise/Activity- builds brain function & activity tolerance

  • Energy Conservation- pacing/scheduling tasks & breaks

  • Stress Reduction- diaphragmatic breathing, muscle relaxation, meditation, yoga, guided imagery

  • Referrals- Pain Mgmt., BH, Nutritionist, Acupuncturist, Substance abuse/ETOH program recommendation, sleep study recommendation


Treatment of sleep

Treatment of Sleep

  • Medication- prescribed by a Doctor (Ambien, Lunesta, Minipress, Restoril, Sertraline, Trazodone, Prazosin)

  • Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy- Sleep Gym

  • Rescripting/Image Rehearsal Therapy (IRT)- Sleep Gym

  • Hygiene Therapy- Sleep Gym

  • CPAP Machine- blows air to keep airway open

  • Complimentary/Alternative Therapy-

    • Aromatherapy & essential oils- lavender, rose, jasmine

    • Herbal remedies (in forms of teas or tinctures) chamomile, hops, catnip, valerian, St. John’s wart, peppermint, passion flower

    • Yoga- attitude adjustment, squeeze out tension, calming

    • Meditation


Treatment of sleep1

Treatment of Sleep

  • Medication- prescribed by a Doctor (Ambien, Lunesta, Minipress, Restoril, Sertraline, Trazodone, Prazosin)

  • Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy- Sleep Gym

  • Rescripting/Image Rehearsal Therapy (IRT)- Sleep Gym

  • Hygiene Therapy- Sleep Gym

  • CPAP Machine- blows air to keep airway open

  • Referrals- See previous slide

  • Complimentary/Alternative Therapy-

    • Aromatherapy & essential oils- lavender, rose, jasmine

    • Herbal remedies (in forms of teas or tinctures) chamomile, hops, catnip, valerian, St. John’s wart, peppermint, passion flower

    • Yoga- attitude adjustment, squeeze out tension, calming

    • Meditation


Medication pitfalls

Medication Pitfalls

  • Drug tolerance- More sleep aid is required to work

  • Drug dependence- Medication reliance to sleep

  • Withdrawal symptoms- Stopping a medication abruptly can cause withdrawal symptoms

  • Side effects- Drowsiness the next day, confusion, dry mouth, forgetfulness, decreased safety, cognitive changes

  • Drug interactions- Other medications can interact with sleep med’s

  • Rebound insomnia- Insomnia can become even worse than before

  • Masking an underlying problem- Medical, mental disorder, or even a sleep disorder could be present. Proper treated could provide relief from insomnia


Medication pitfalls for sm s

Medication Pitfalls for SM’s

  • Only take a sleeping aid when you can obtain a full night of sleep (7 to 8 hours)

  • Some medications cause withdrawal side effects when stopped abruptly

  • Never drink alcohol (or take illegal drugs) near the time when you take a sleeping pill

  • Never drive a car or operate machinery after taking a sleeping pill

  • Contraindications may apply with use of other medication


Cbt i treatment

CBT-I Treatment

  • Behavioral: Sleep Restriction, Stimulus Control, Relaxation Therapy

    • Excessive time in bed, irregular sleep schedules, incompatible sleep activities, hyper arousal, sleep avoidance, safety behaviors

  • Cognitive: Counseling

    • Unrealistic sleep expectations, sleep misconceptions, anticipatory anxiety, poor coping skills, fear of sleep, nocturnal vigilance, worry about post-trauma related issues, intrusive memories, distress, and physical reactions while in bed


Cbt i treatment continued

CBT-I Treatment Continued

  • Educational: Sleep Hygiene, Support Groups, Links of Interest

    • Targeting the SM’s current knowledge and improving upon it

  • Support: Follow up and care


Treatment interventions

Treatment Interventions

Mind Body Relationship

The Law of Effect- Behaviors can be learned and triggered

  • Leave the bed and bedroom when you are unable to fall asleep after about 15-20 minutes. Return to bed only when you feel sleepy again

    • Repeat this as many times as needed. This will strengthen the association between sleep and bed (versus insomnia and bed)

      • A key to success is doing anything that is not mentally or physically activating in a quiet and dimly lit space


Treatment interventions1

Treatment Interventions

Image Rehearsal Therapy

Train the brain to encounter a positive desired outcome in

a wake and sleep state

  • Guided imagery using a relaxing scene or series of

    experiences to change nightmares into non-disturbing

    dreams by composing new dreams while awake.

    Write down your new dreams and rehearse them using

    your imagination. Rehearse your new dreams several

    times during the day and just before you go to bed

    Can also be used to train your mind, body & spirit for success!


Treatment interventions2

Treatment Interventions

Train Your Brain

Train the brain to efficiently and effectively become quiet

before you go to bed

  • Schedule worry or excessive thoughts:

    • Schedule time to worry, or excessively think during the day. This is when you are most likely able to create solutions, develop a good plan or have the energy to prepare for the next day or week

    • Train your brain to effectively worry and develop solutions during the day with consistency

  • Talk back to your thoughts in a healthy way

    • Dispute or change the thought, focus on sounds


Occupational therapy and sleep in the army cdr laura m grogan otr l may 25 2010

www.dvbic.org

*A TBI OT Tool Kit is expected to be

released early this year and will address fatigue.

CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDANCE:

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AND

PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR

MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

Office of the Surgeon General

Proponency Office for

Rehabilitation and Reintegration


The best cure for insomnia is to get a lot of sleep w c fields questions

“The best cure for insomnia is to get a lot of sleep.” – W.C. FieldsQuestions?


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