Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california
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MARINE PROTECTED AREAS IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF CALIFORNIA: DERIVING SPATIAL SIMULATION SCENARIOS TOWARDS MANAGEMENT DIEGO LERCARI CICIMAR-IPN MEXICO. WP5 OBJECTIVES Deliverable 5.1 Review nature, role and effectiveness of MPA Examine need and potential role of new MPA.

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Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

MARINE PROTECTED AREAS IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF CALIFORNIA:

DERIVING SPATIAL SIMULATION SCENARIOS TOWARDS MANAGEMENT

DIEGO LERCARI

CICIMAR-IPN

MEXICO


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

WP5 OBJECTIVES

Deliverable 5.1

Review nature, role and effectiveness of MPA

Examine need and potential role of new MPA


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

Gulf of California – Mar de Cortés

282 000 km2 – 232 islands

Latitudinal range: 24º - 32º N

Depth: 180m (north) - 4000 m (central)

Mean SST: 23.5 ªC N, 26.5 ªCS

Subtropical most productive and diverse ecosystem

Mean productivity: 477 gCm-2yr-1


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

  • MARINE SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA

  • Invertebrates (excluding copepods and ostracods): 4,852 species (767 endemic) Fishes: 891 species (88 endemic to the Gulf)

  • Non-fish Vertebrates: 222 species (4 endemic to the Gulf)

  • Total: 5,965 species (859, 14.4%, endemic to the Gulf)

  • FISHERIES IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA

  • 50 % of Mexico's total catches

  • 60% of Mexico's totalvalue

  • 50 000 direct job

  • Shrimp

  • Sardine

  • Sharks, sciaenidae, serranidae…


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

bathymetry

satellite view from USA

  • Northern Gulf of California

  • One of the most productive and diverse region inside the Gulf

  • 36000 km2

  • Colorado river mouth + delta

  • Mean depth: 180m north, 4000 m central trenches

  • Mean SST: 23.5 ªC N, 26.5 ªCS

  • 3 fishing ports


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

  • MARINE SPECIES DIVERSITY IN NORTHERN GULF OF CALIFORNIA

  • Invertebrates: 2,257 species (128 endemics)

  • Vertebrates: 516 species (10 endemics)

  • Mammals: (1 endemic; the vaquita Phocoena sinus)

  • Fishes: 367 (12 endemics)

  • Seabirds: 145 (no endemics)

  • Marine reptiles: 6 (no endemics)

  • FISHERIES IN NORTHERN GULF OF CALIFORNIA

  • Invertebrates: 2,257 species (128 endemics)

  • Vertebrates: 516 species (10 endemics)

  • Mammals: (1 endemic; the vaquita Phocoena sinus)

  • Fishes: 367 (12 endemics)


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

Phocoena sinus(Norris & McFarland, 1958 )

Critically endangered: IUCN

Smaller cetacean: 1.5 m – 55kg

Endemic to the Upper Gulf

Very reduced distribution: 600 inds.

Bycath in gill nets of various sizes

ENDENGERED SPECIES IN NORTHERN GULF OF CALIFORNIA

Totoaba macdonaldi(Gilbert, 1890)

  • Endangered – totally banned

  • Largest Sciaenidae: 2 m - 135 kg

  • Endemic to the Gulf of California

  • Ontogenetic migration pattern

  • Historic stock depletion

  • Illegal adult fishing

  • Juveniles bycath in shrimp trawl


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

Marine Protected Area – UGC&CRDBR

Status: Upper Gulf of California / Colorado river Delta

Biosphere Reserve: 1993 UNESCO-MAB

Size and placement: 9348 km2

31 00' y 32 10' N & 113 30' y 115 15' W.

Cyprinodon macularius

Considered as one important Case of a MPA in México with diverse conflicts:

fishing/conservation

binational environmental impact (e.g. Colorado discharge)

  • MARINE SPECIES DIVERSITY IN UPPER GULF BIOSPHERE RESERVE

  • Invertebrates: 1,048 species (43 endemics)

  • Fishes: 230 (191 bony fishes, 39 cartilaginous fishes), 1 endemic

  • Marine Mammals: 15 (14 cetaceans, 1 sea lion), no endemics


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

  • MPA OBJECTIVES

  • To conserve and protect:

  • Ecosystems

  • Biodiversity

  • Evolutionary processes

  • Commercial species critical habitats

  • Endangered species

  • Conserve the biodiversity and the Sonora desert, upper Gulf of California and Colorado river delta ecosystems.

  • Identify, protect and restore critical areas for endemic and endangered species.

  • Protect critical areas (e.g. spawning, nursery) for commercial or ecologically relevant species.

  • Regulate productive activities to match with the conservation objectives.

  • Promote sustainable productive activities

  • Impulse scientific investigation and environmental education towards the ecosystem knowledge and the rational use of the natural resources.

  • Conserve the genetic diversity to allow the evolutionary processes continuity.

  • Conserve the biotic and ecosystem integrity towards the sustainable resourceutilization


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

  • MPA MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATIONPROGRAM: RESERVE OPERATION

  • Generates actions towards the mentioned objectives: 6 subprograms

  • Protection: inspection, vigilance and contingency response

  • Management

    • Management of economically important species

    • Ecosystems management

    • Make conservation a profitable activity

    • Promote ecotourism: increase income to local families

    • Others…

  • Restoration

    • Restore specific areas within the reserve

    • Restore vaquita and totoaba populations

    • Restore freshwater availability

  • Knowledge: promote research, monitoring

  • Culture: environmental education

  • Administration: human and economic resources, funding

  • STAFF

  • Director: 1

  • Sub director: 1

  • Project manager: 1

  • Promoters: 2

  • Assistant: 1


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

ECOLOGICAL PLANING AND ZONIFICATION: RESERVE OPERATION

Zonification criteria: natural features (e.g. wetlands, endemic species), land and marine resources employment.

  • BUFFER ZONE: 7709,8 km2

  • Productive activities ALLOWED: subzonification

  • Traditional uses

  • Sustainable use of natural resources

  • Agroecosystems

  • Special use: salt extraction

  • Public use: beaches, camping

  • Human populations

  • Restoration areas

  • CORE ZONE = COLORADO RIVER DELTA: 1647,8 km2

  • Includes best preserved areas

  • Critical areas: spawning, nursery, nesting

  • Relevant ecological processes: nutrient enrichment (tidal mix), saline gradient, etc.

  • All extractive activities are PROHIBITED*


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

PARTICULAR FIHERIES ASPECTS

Incidental catch < target catch no endangered species

Benthic resources: manual, diving or traps

Pelagic species: 1200 m longlines “cimbras”

Other species: 500 m gillnets 15 cm mesh. Engine < 75HP

Aquaculture: only native species

  • PROBLEMS

  • Effects of fishing: illegal fishing inside the core zone (ecospace scenario)

  • Habitat degradation: Colorado river flow and contamination

  • Vaquita and totoaba incidental catch still continues: need for a new MPA

  • ECTIVENESS: No publications in scientific journals nor in gray literature, showing biological or ecological benefits of this MPA.

  • Monitoring program working?


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

  • SITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE

  • First official Management Program developed in México

  • Involvement of small-scale fishing's sectors

  • Enforcing regulations in coastal activities

  • Promotion of the Recovery Strategy for the endangered vaquita

  • Promotion and managing ecotourism pilot projects

  • Promotion of environmental education campaigns

  • Promotion of binational agreements to protect existing Colorado delta wetlands

  • Promotion of alternative fishing activities such blue crab and hooka diving

  • Include the Reserve in national, regional and international conventions and cooperative agreements (Ramsar, AICAS, MAB, NAWMP)


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

Continuing incidental capture of vaquita and totoaba.

Natural Resources Defence Council (USA) impulse shrimp fishery without affecting the vaquita or promote a campaign against Mexican shrimp.

Ample consensus to implement a new MPA.

Refuge for the conservation of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus)

1,245.85 km²

897.09 km² inside the buffer zone

366.76 km² outside, adjacent to the reserve, completing the entire vaquita´s sighting region including Rocas Consag.

Restriction in activities directly related to vaquita protection: gillnets and trawling.

No management plan nor detailed design yet: opportunity to ecospace

Examine need and potential role of new MPA


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

Deliverable 5.2Run simulations of MPA effectiveness with Ecospace1- ecopath model:2- ecosim model: calibration: basic simulations3- ecospace model: constructionExamine effects of size and placement on the effectiveness of MPAs


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

EXISTING ECOPATH MODELS

NGC 1970-1980

NGC 1990-2000


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

EXISTING ECOSIM SETINGS

Time series fitting

Vulnerability search

  • Effort

  • Catch

  • CPUE

  • PDOI

  • V >>3 top-down

Totoaba

  • Effort

  • Catch

  • CPUE

  • COLORADO RIVER

  • V >>3 TOP-DOWN

Blue shrimp

  • Censuses

  • PDOI

  • V = 1 bottom-up

Zalophus


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

EXISTING ECOSIM BASIC SCENARIOS: no fishing & doubling fishing

TOP-DOWN

TOTOABA ADLTS

BOTTOM-UP

440%

MIX-DEF

MIX-CALIB

200%

140%

VAQUITA

95%

55%

NO FISHING

23%

20 YEARS NO FISHING


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

TOP-DOWN

TOTOABA ADLTS

BOTTOM-UP

MIX-DEF

-16%

MIX-CALIB

-50%

-41%

-95%

-80%

VAQUITA

20 YEARS DOUBLE FISHING


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

ECOSPACE DEVELOPMENT

Model construction

Basic exploration

No MPA

No buffer zone

New refugee zone


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

1) > 200 m

2) < 100 m

3) 100-200m

4) Delta

5) Rocky

6) Wetlands and bays

7) Vaquita

1) BASE MAP

2) HABITAT DEFINITION


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

  • 3) MPA DEFINITION

  • CORE ZONE

  • BUFFER ZONE

  • NEW POLIGON

  • 4) RELATIVE PP

  • SEAWIFE

  • ANUAL MEAN


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

5) HABITAT PREFERENCES AND DISPERSION RATES


7 basic simulation scenarios 1 actual 2 no mpa effectiveness 3 new refugee

7) BASIC SIMULATION SCENARIOS1) ACTUAL2) NO MPA – EFFECTIVENESS3) NEW REFUGEE

6) FISHING ACTIVITIES


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

ACTUAL SITUATION


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

ACTUAL SITUATION


Marine protected areas in the northern gulf of california

NO MPA SITUATION


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