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Amazonia and Climate. A.D. Nobre, INPA Side Event Institute for Environmental Security UNFCC COP12 15 November 2006, Nairobi Kenya. Socrates Dream. Animation credit NASA. The changes in atmospheric composition are highly correlated with climate stability. 30% output increase.

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Amazonia and Climate

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Amazonia and Climate

A.D. Nobre, INPA

Side Event Institute for Environmental Security

UNFCC COP12

15 November 2006, Nairobi Kenya


Socrates Dream

Animation credit NASA


The changes in atmospheric composition are highly correlated with climate stability

30% output increase

Present day Earth 0.037% CO2

Greenhouse Earth 95% CO2


Biogeochemical Climate Thermostat


Does Earth have life because It is stable...

or

is It stable because of its life?

A multidisciplinary stroll

through Earth evolution

See details in the

GCP CD: Earth, a Living Planet


The Green Ocean

Photo Credit Andrea, Artaxoet al

. LBA Smocc Experiment


TROPICAL RAINFALL

2 years data from TRMM satellite

Animation Credit NASA Goddard

[DATA]


20 years of Surface Temperature

[DATA]

Data & Animation Credit NASA


Biosphere – Atmosphere relations

More Power than Meets the Eyes

300 liters of water transpired per day by a single big tree !

Equivalent to 20 billion tons for the whole Amazon !

K34 FLUXTOWER Manaus Brazil

Photo Credit Andrea, Artaxo et al., LBA Claire II Experiment

Or 135 years of Itaipu at full power !!


RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST

Photo Credit Antonio D Nobre


RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST

[MODEL]

CLEAN ATMOSPHERE

H2OVAPOR

H2OVAPOR

Diagram by Antonio D Nobre

based on results of LBA: Claeys et al and Andrea et al. Science 2004; Marengo et al 2004, 2005; others


RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST

Biodiversity is Associated with Emissions

of Volatile Organic Compounds

Photo Credit Antonio D Nobre


Volatile Organic Tree

Light

100s of VOCs

Flowers

Floral Scents

Ethylene

Many Tissues

Phytohormones

Methyl

Jasmonate

Resin ducts or glands

Stored Terpenes

Leaves, Stems, Roots

Resin ducts or glands

Stored Terpenes

Cell Membranes

Defense + Herbivory

Methyl

Salicylate

C5, C6

VOCs

Cell Walls

by-products

Methanol

Isoprene

Sesquiterpenes

Monoterpenes

Leaves

Polimerization:

Terpenes

Formaldhyde

Formic Acid

Acetaldehyde

Acetic Acid

Ethanol

Acetone

Metabolism

Modified from Fall, R., University of Colorado, Boulder at http://www.rfall.net/


The Forgotten Droplets


RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST

[MODEL]

CLEAN ATMOSPHERE

Warm

Low Level

Clouds

H2OVAPOR

Biogenic

Cloud Condensation

Nuclei (CCNs)

Heavy but Gentle

Rainfall

Diagram by Antonio D Nobre

based on results of LBA: Claeys et al and Andrea et al. Science 2004; Marengo et al 2004, 2005; others


RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST

[MODEL]

CLEAN ATMOSPHERE

Warm

Low Level

Clouds

H2OVAPOR

H2OVAPOR

Biogenic

Cloud Condensation

Nuclei (CCNs)

Heavy but Gentle

Rainfall

Diagram by Antonio D Nobre

based on results of LBA: Claeys et al and Andrea et al. Science 2004; Marengo et al 2004, 2005; others


FORESTED-LAND CIRCULATION

[MODEL]

(e) Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture: transpiration fluxes regulated by natural

forests exceed oceanic evaporation fluxes to the degree when the arising oceanto-

land fluxes of moist air become large enough to compensate losses of water to

runoff in the entire river basin.

Makarieva A. M., Gorshkov V. G., 2006, Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture and its importance for the water cycle on land, Hydrology Earth System Sciences Discussions, online now.


Paleoclimates and Vegetation:

Suggestions from the Mega fauna

giraffes

elephant


Wildebeest


Photo Credit Antonio D Nobre

The Amazon Rainforest has a Powerful and Key Influence on Climate

How does this Influence Plays Elsewhere on the Globe?


Valuing Ecosystem Services

Healthy forest–atmosphere

exchanges can affect the hydrological cycle elsewhere


[DATA]

Airborne Rivers of Vapor

Click mouse here =>

<= to Start / Stop rain animation

Global water vapor, one week mosaic


[DATA]

Geography of Climate

?

?

Fonte mapa: material internet


[MODEL]

Surface heating on the equatorial zone produces strong upwellings of air. Rising air cools and looses moisture, making these rainy areas

First, let’s observe and understand global atmospheric circulation

...when the dry air falls in the other extreme of the Hadley cells it warms up and takes moisture from the surface... making these dry areas

The Hadley circulation transports heat from the equator to higher latitudes, and explains the trade winds near the surface, which transport moisture from the ocean to the Amazon

Diagram source:

internet material


[MODEL]

The ENGINE


[DATA]

30 years of South America Rainfall

Source: Willmot & Webber, 1998, http://daac.ornl.gov//LBA/guides/lba_willmott.html


The Explanation : South American Monsoon

Marengo et al, 2005

[MODEL]


RAINFALL MECHANISM IN A DISTURBED RAINFOREST

[MODEL]

People destroy the Garden of Eden…

What happens then?

based on results of ABRACOS project 2000 and LBA: Andrea et al. Science,; others

DIRTY ATMOSPHERE

Diagram by Antonio D Nobre

Photo Credit Andrea, Artaxo et al.

LBA Smocc Experiment


RAINFALL MECHANISM IN A DISTURBED RAINFOREST

[MODEL]

DIRTY ATMOSPHERE

Smoky

Dissipative

Clouds

Dry Season

or Drought

COLD

Towering

Clouds

Soot

Dust

Suppression

of

Rainfall

Diagram by Antonio D Nobre

based on results of ABRACOS project 2000 and LBA: Andrea et al. Science,; others


DESERT CIRCULATION

[MODEL]

(a) Deserts: evaporation on land is close to zero, so the low level air moves from

land to the ocean year round, thus "locking" the desert for moisture.

Makarieva A. M., Gorshkov V. G., 2006, Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture and its importance for the water cycle on land, Hydrology Earth System Sciences Discussions, online now.


Amazon River, 2005


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