THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Anatomy Acute Exercise Chronic Exercise. Adaptations to Chronic Exercise. Increase VO2max. What does a higher VO2max indicate? What is responsible for an increase in VO2max? VO2max = Qmax x a-vO2 difference. CARDIAC OUTPUT AND TRAINING. Cardiac Output.
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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
CARDIAC OUTPUT AND TRAINING
LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY
STROKE VOLUME AND TRAINING
DIFFERENCES IN EDV, ESV, AND EF
Filling Volume Residual VolumePercent of Total Volume Ejected
HEART RATE AND TRAINING
Heart Rate Recovery Period
wThe time after exercise that it takes your heart to return to its resting rate
wWith training, heart rate returns to resting level more quickly after exercise
wHas been used as an index of cardiorespiratory fitness
wConditions such as altitude or heat can affect it
wShould not be used to compare individuals to one another
HEART RATE RECOVERY AND TRAINING
BLOOD AND PLASMA VOLUME AND TRAINING
wChanges in plasma volume are highly correlated with changes in SV and VO2max.
Blood Volume and Training
wEndurance training, especially intense training, increases blood volume.
wBlood volume increases due to an increase in plasma volume (increases in ADH, aldosterone, and plasma proteins cause more fluid to be retained in the blood).
wRed blood cell volume increases, but increase in plasma volume is higher; thus, hematocrit decreases.
wBlood viscosity decreases, thus improving circulation and enhancing oxygen delivery.
Cardiovascular Adaptations to Training
wLeft ventricle size and wall thickness increase
wStroke volume increases, as does Qmax and VO2max
wResting and submaximal heart rates decrease
wMaximal heart rate stays the same or decreases
wBlood volume increases
wIncrease in a-v O2 difference
wMore capillaries, myoglobin and mitochondria
a-v O2 difference
Blood Pressure and Training
wBlood pressure changes little during submaximal or maximal exercise.
w Resting blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) is lowered with endurance training in individuals with borderline or moderate hypertension.
w Blood pressure during lifting heavy weights can cause increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but resting blood pressure after weight lifting tends to not change or decrease.
BLOOD LACTATE AND TRAINING
CHANGE IN RACE PACE, NOT VO2MAX
Aerobic Endurance and Performance
wMajor defense against fatigue which limits optimal performance.
wShould be the primary emphasis of training for health and fitness.
wAll athletes can benefit from maximizing their endurance.
w Pulmonary ventilation increases during maximal effort after training.
Respiratory Adaptations to Training
wStatic lung volumes remain unchanged; tidal volume, unchanged at rest and during submaximal exercise, increases with maximal exertion.
w Respiratory rate stays steady at rest, decreases with submaximal exercise, and can increase dramatically with maximal exercise after training.
w The a-vO2 diff increases with training due to more oxygen being extracted by tissues.
Respiratory Adaptations to Training
wPulmonary diffusion increases at maximal work rates.
w The respiratory system is seldom a limiter of endurance performance.
w All the major adaptations of the respiratory system to training are most apparent during maximal exercise.