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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Anatomy Acute Exercise Chronic Exercise. Adaptations to Chronic Exercise. Increase VO2max. What does a higher VO2max indicate? What is responsible for an increase in VO2max? VO2max = Qmax x a-vO2 difference. CARDIAC OUTPUT AND TRAINING. Cardiac Output.

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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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The cardiovascular system l.jpg

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Anatomy

Acute Exercise

Chronic Exercise


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Adaptations to Chronic Exercise

  • Increase VO2max.

  • What does a higher VO2max indicate?

  • What is responsible for an increase in VO2max?

  • VO2max = Qmax x a-vO2 difference


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CARDIAC OUTPUT AND TRAINING


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Cardiac Output

  • What is responsible for a higher maximal cardiac output?

  • Q = HRmax x SVmax

  • Does HRmax increase with training?

  • Does SVmax increase with training?


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Stroke Volume

  • What is responsible for a higher SVmax?


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LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY


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STROKE VOLUME AND TRAINING


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DIFFERENCES IN EDV, ESV, AND EF

Filling Volume Residual VolumePercent of Total Volume Ejected


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Stroke Volume

  • A larger and stronger heart produces an increase in stroke volume at rest, submaximal exercise and maximal exercise

  • A higher stroke volume at rest and submaximal exercise will allow for a lower heart rate without changing cardiac output


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Stroke Volume

  • A higher maximal stroke volume will produce a higher cardiac output

  • A higher cardiac output will produce a higher VO2max

  • A higher VO2max indicates a greater ability for aerobic energy production


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Stroke Volume

  • What type of aerobic training is most effective in strengthening the heart and thus increasing stroke volume?


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Heart Rate

  • What affect will a larger SV have on resting HR?

  • What affect will a larger SV have on submaximal exercise HR?

  • What affect will a larger SV have on maximal exercise HR?


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HEART RATE AND TRAINING


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Heart Rate Recovery Period

wThe time after exercise that it takes your heart to return to its resting rate

wWith training, heart rate returns to resting level more quickly after exercise

wHas been used as an index of cardiorespiratory fitness

wConditions such as altitude or heat can affect it

wShould not be used to compare individuals to one another


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HEART RATE RECOVERY AND TRAINING


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Blood Flow

  • What other changes occur with training that allow for an increase in blood flow to the muscle?

  • Capillaries?

  • Blood?


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Capillaries


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Blood Volume?

BLOOD AND PLASMA VOLUME AND TRAINING

  • Red Blood Cells?

  • Hematrocrit?

  • Viscosity?

  • Blood flow distribution?


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wChanges in plasma volume are highly correlated with changes in SV and VO2max.

.

Blood Volume and Training

wEndurance training, especially intense training, increases blood volume.

wBlood volume increases due to an increase in plasma volume (increases in ADH, aldosterone, and plasma proteins cause more fluid to be retained in the blood).

wRed blood cell volume increases, but increase in plasma volume is higher; thus, hematocrit decreases.

wBlood viscosity decreases, thus improving circulation and enhancing oxygen delivery.


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a-v O2 difference

  • What else needs to happen beside an increase in blood flow and blood volume in order for VO2max to increase?

  • Capillaries

  • Myoglobin

  • Mitochondria


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Cardiovascular Adaptations to Training

Cardiac Output

wLeft ventricle size and wall thickness increase

wStroke volume increases, as does Qmax and VO2max

wResting and submaximal heart rates decrease

wMaximal heart rate stays the same or decreases

wBlood volume increases

wIncrease in a-v O2 difference

wMore capillaries, myoglobin and mitochondria

a-v O2 difference


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Cardiovascular Adaptations to Training


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Blood Pressure and Training

wBlood pressure changes little during submaximal or maximal exercise.

w Resting blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) is lowered with endurance training in individuals with borderline or moderate hypertension.

w Blood pressure during lifting heavy weights can cause increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but resting blood pressure after weight lifting tends to not change or decrease.


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Lactate Threshold

  • What affect would an increase oxygen supply to the muscles during exercise have on the lactate threshold?

  • What affect would this have on aerobic performance?


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BLOOD LACTATE AND TRAINING


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At Rest

  • At rest the heart can supply all the needed oxygen with a cardiac output of 5 liters per minute.

  • If the resting stroke volume is higher due to aerobic training, how will the resting heart rate be different?

  • What about parasympathetic stimulation?


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Submaximal Exercise

  • Before training, running at 6 mph required a cardiac output of 15 liters.

  • Also, before training this required a heart rate of 140 bpm

  • Since after weeks of training stroke volume increases, what will happen to the heart rate while running at 6 mph? Why?

  • What would happen to the running speed if the trained person now ran at a heart rate of 140 bpm?

  • If the lactate threshold used to occur at 6 mph, at what speed will it occur now? Why?


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Maximal Exercise

  • Increase in VO2max

  • Increase SV and blood volume

  • Indicator of aerobic fitness level


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CHANGE IN RACE PACE, NOT VO2MAX


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Aerobic Endurance and Performance

wMajor defense against fatigue which limits optimal performance.

wShould be the primary emphasis of training for health and fitness.

wAll athletes can benefit from maximizing their endurance.


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w Pulmonary ventilation increases during maximal effort after training.

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Respiratory Adaptations to Training

wStatic lung volumes remain unchanged; tidal volume, unchanged at rest and during submaximal exercise, increases with maximal exertion.

w Respiratory rate stays steady at rest, decreases with submaximal exercise, and can increase dramatically with maximal exercise after training.


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w The a-vO2 diff increases with training due to more oxygen being extracted by tissues.

Respiratory Adaptations to Training

wPulmonary diffusion increases at maximal work rates.

w The respiratory system is seldom a limiter of endurance performance.

w All the major adaptations of the respiratory system to training are most apparent during maximal exercise.


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