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ROBOTICS. ROBOTICS. Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics, engineering, mechanics, and software .

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Robotics

ROBOTICS


Robotics

ROBOTICS

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics, engineering, mechanics, and software.

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by writer KarelČapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots)


Robotics

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Asimov, published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story (Astounding Science Fiction, March 1942).


Robotics

In 1942 the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov formulated his of Robotics:Three Laws

1 - A robot may not harm humans and should not be allowed to happen hurt them.2 - the robot must obey human orders except when it would interfere with the First Law.3 - the robot must maintain its presence as long as it does not conflict with the first and second law.


Robotics

In 1948 "Norbert Wiener" formulated the principles of cybernetics(Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems), the basis of practical robotics.

Fully autonomous robots only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot,

was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a casting machine and stack them.

Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply, or more accurately and reliably, than humans.

They are also employed in jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, packing and packaging, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods.


Robotics

robot components

1- a power source

A robot needs a power source to drive its actuators. Electric robots use batteries or extension cord. Hydraulic robots need pumps to pressurize the hydraulic fluid, and pneumatic robots need air compressors.

2- a moveable body

 Robots may have wheels, limbs connected by mechanical joints, or other types of moveable segments.

3- an electrical circuit

4- an actuator

In order to be activated, robots may use an electric motor, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system or a combination of all three.

5- a reprogrammable brain (computer)

 The computer controls all other components. In order to change the robot's behavior, you just have to reprogram the computer.

6- a sensory system

 Some robots have the ability to collect information

about their environment and react to it.


Robotics

1206Created early humanoid automata, programmable automaton band Robot band, hand-washing automaton, automated moving

1495Designs for a humanoid robot Mechanical knight Leonardo daVinci

1738Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete Digesting Duck Jacques de Vaucanson

1921First fictional automatons called "robots" appear in the play R.U.R. Rossum's Universal Robots KarelČapek

1930s Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs Elektro Westinghouse Electric Corporation

1956First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol'spatentsUnimateGeorge Devol

1961First installed industrial robot. Unimate George Devol

1973First industrial robot with six electromechanically driven axes FamulusKUKA Robot Group

1975Programmable universal manipulation arm, a Unimation product PUMA Victor Scheinman


Robotics

advantages Robotics

1-Increase productivity

2-Complete the work in a shorter time3-Flexible and easy to work4-The ability to work in hazardous conditions

5- Offers better accuracy in performance.


Robotics

Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009, called SmartHand, which functions like a real one allowing patients to write with it, type on a keyboard, play piano and perform other fine movements. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips


Robotics

There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing

and behavior of biological systems, at different levels of complexity.

Also, some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology

tipes of robotics

1-Rolling robots

2-Walking applied to robots

3-Hopping

4-Flying(like autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey,

including takeoff, normal flight, and even landing.[69] Other flying robots are uninhabited,

and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot onboard)

5-Snaking

6-Skating

Climbing-7

8-Swimming


Some robotics applications

Some robotics applications:

1 - robot in the industry.2 - medical robot.3 - robot in entertainment and sports. 4 - robot in space research.


Robotics

Indeed, the human skeletal and muscular systems are complicated for many reasons. For now, robots will most likely be manufactured for a limited number of distinct tasks such as painting, welding or lifting. Presumably, once robots have the ability perform a much wider array of tasks, and voice recognition software improves such that computers can interpret complicated sentences in varying accents, we may in fact see robots doing our housework and carrying out other tasks in the physical world


Robotics

Robotics is the art and commerce of robots, their design, manufacture, application, and practical use. Robots will soon be everywhere, in our home and at work. They will change the way we live. This will raise many philosophical, social, and political questions that will have to be answered. In science fiction, robots become so intelligent that they decide to take over the world because humans are deemed

inferior. In real life, however, they might not choose to do that. Robots might follow rules such as Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics, that will prevent them from doing so. When the Singularity happens, robots will be indistinguishable from human beings and some people may become Cyborgs: half man and half machine. This is an exemplary article .Table of Contents Social Impact Minimal requirements 2 Types of Robots Applications Home Applications Medical Applications Military applications Technical challenges Timeline Robotics in 2020 edit Social Impact Given that in the next two decades robots will be capable of replacing humans in most manufacturing and service jobs, economic development will be primarily determined by the advancement of robotics. Given Japan's current strength in this field, it may well become the economic leader in the next 20 years Marshall Brain also discusses the emergence of robotic economy


Robotics

Unfortunatly, due to Japan's shrinking population and poor government intervention plans, they will be completly unable to capitalize on their (shrinking) advantage in technology. India's vast advantage in the fields of technology, and Germany's massive amounts of capital will make them far larger powers then Japan

Microsoft Robotics Studio

Microsoft is currently working to stabilize the fragmented robotics market with its new software Microsoft Robotics Studio


Robotics

Minimal requirements To start a robotic breakthrough we need the following capabilities :

object recognition capabilities of a 2-year-old child language

understanding of a 4-year-old manual dexterity of a 6-year old That will allow robotisation of most manual jobs in the world and will be the turning point in the robotic history

and for introducing the robots into social context we would need.


Robotics

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