Information design and visualization the graphic system
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Information design and visualization: The graphic system. Dr. Lily Díaz Professor Media Lab, School of Art and Design Aalto University January 18-19, 2012. Knowledge. A process of approximation Organization of memory

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Information design and visualization the graphic system

Information design and visualization: The graphic system

Dr. Lily Díaz

Professor

Media Lab, School of Art and Design

Aalto University

January 18-19, 2012


Knowledge

Knowledge

  • A process of approximation

    • Organization of memory

    • Inner cognitive process augmented by technology and social organization.


3 types of interdependent knowledge

3 types of interdependent knowledge

  • Declarative

  • Meaning

  • Procedural


Graphic systems of representation

Graphic systems of representation

  • Monosemic - information is represented through the use of signs whose meaning has been defined beforehand.

  • Polysemic - the meaning of the individual signs follows and is deduced from considerations of the collection of signs.


Monosemic system

Monosemic system


Polysemic system

Polysemic system


Pansemic

Pansemic


Information design

Information design

  • Makes use of visual and spatial cognitive features of human perception.

  • Makes use of representation to codify knowledge.

  • Involves a reduction and translation in order to make knowledge understandable.


Visual perception

Visual perception


Light color

Light & color


Light the eye

Light & the eye


Field of vision

Field of vision


Information

Information

  • “Information is the difference that makes a difference…” Gregory Bateson.


Low level feature analysis

Low-level feature analysis

  • Visual area 1, or V1 – Primary visual cortex, a kind of tapestry of interlocking regions where different kinds of information are processed.

  • Visual area 2, or V2 – Receives input from V1 and responds to slightly more complex patterns, based on the processing already done in V1.

  • Visual area 3, or V 3 – Contour extraction mechanisms.

  • Visual area 4, or V 4 – Pattern perception, association through grouping based on proximity.


Pattern processing

Pattern processing


Top down processing

Top down processing

  • Natural semantics – permeate our spoken and conceptual language.

    • Ex: George Lakoff argues that spatial metaphors are not just ways of making language more vivid but are fundamental to communication and reasoning.


About metaphors

About Metaphors


Graphics

Graphics

  • Graphics uses the properties of the visual image in order to make relationships of difference/similarity, order or proportion appear among data.

  • Graphics is applied to a set of data after it has been defined as ‘the table of data’.

  • Graphics is about processing data for understanding and extracting information in order to communicate something.


Reduction and synthesis

Reduction and synthesis

  • Process involves a selection of the proper elements in order to express a thought or idea.

  • Not everything can be included.

  • A graphic is supposed to ‘reveal’ something about the information it represents.


Translation

Translation

  • Re-structuring and imposition of order.

  • Content is codified using diverse forms of graphic representation.

    • Hierarchy

    • Matrix

    • Network


System of graphic representation processes

System of graphic representation(Processes)

  • Content

  • Form


Content

Content

  • “…those elements of the thought which can remain constant, regardless of the sign-system used for their transfer”


Information design and visualization the graphic system

Form

  • is the ‘container’ of the content


System of graphic representation elements

System of graphic representation(Elements)

  • Positional variables

    • Variations of the signs

    • Planar dimensions

  • Retinal variables

    • Perception

    • Relation

  • Identifiers

    • External

    • Internal


Positional variables

Positional variables

  • Variations of the signs

    • Point: represents a spatial location in time.

    • Line: has measurable length but no area.

    • Area: has measurable size and can vary in position, value, texture, and color.


Positional variables1

Positional variables

  • Planar dimensions

    • height = y

    • length = x.


Retinal variables

Retinal variables

  • Size: allows differentiation through magnitude.

  • Value: allows differentiation by using the scale between black and white.

  • Texture: allows differentiation by using different arrangement of signs.

  • Color: allows differentiation through distinction of colored sensations.

  • Orientation: allows differentiation by using different orientations for a line or line pattern.

  • Shape: allows differentiation by changing the shape of a sign of constant size.


Visual patterns can be used to express relations

Visual patterns can be used to express relations

From Colin Ware’s Visual Thinking for Design


Meaning can be encoded in graphics

Meaning can be encoded in graphics

From Colin Ware’s Visual Thinking for Design


Metaphors can be expressed visually

Metaphors can be expressed visually

From Colin Ware’s Visual Thinking for Design


Identifiers

Identifiers

  • Title is an external component

    • Independent of the graphic representation.

    • Extremely important since by itself a drawing cannot furnish all the elements necessary for identification.

    • Allows us to correctly identify the invariant and all the components.

  • Legend is an internal component

    • enables us to identify how visual variables are used to represent each the components


Title as external components

Title as external components

  • A name can operate as a linguistic form of memory.

    • Evoking

    • Linking place with events or people.

  • Magnifying glass

    • Placing emphasis on certain aspects of a phenomenon, while ignoring others.


Internal components

Internal components

  • Components: Have length and can be classified

    • Elements

    • Objects

    • Classes

    • Categories.


Data for internal components

Data for internal components

From Jacques Bertin, The Semiology of Graphics


Graphic rendering

Graphic rendering

From Jacques Bertin, The Semiology of Graphics


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