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Human Security in South Asia. Presented by George C Varughese Development Alternatives, New Delhi. at the Regional Media Workshop on Sustainable Development: A viable Goal Bangkok, 27th October 2008. South Asian Priorities for Action. Eliminating Poverty and Creating Human Security

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slide1

Human Security in South Asia

Presented by

George C Varughese

Development Alternatives, New Delhi

at the

Regional Media Workshop on

Sustainable Development: A viable Goal

Bangkok, 27th October 2008

slide2

South Asian Priorities for Action

  • Eliminating Poverty and Creating Human Security
  • Conserving the Natural Resource Endowments
  • Securing the Economic Base
eliminating poverty creating human security
Managing Population Growth and its Impacts

Direct

– Awareness and incentives

Indirect

– Income generating opportunities, livelihood security, Infrastructure and facilities upgradation

Creating Human Security

Focus on

– Food, Income, Water, Energy, Health and Security from Natural Disasters

Eliminating Poverty & Creating Human Security
slide4

Conserving the Natural Resource Endowments

  • Arresting Industrial Pollution
    • Promoting Corporate Citizenship
    • Addressing Special Needs of Small & Medium Enterprises
    • Strengthening Regulatory Mechanisms
  • Managing Urbanisation
    • Controlling Migration
    • Addressing Urban Poverty and Slums
    • Upgrading Urban Infrastructure and Management Systems
    • Promoting Sustainable Consumption Patterns
  • Conserving Biodiversity
    • Assessing Endowments
    • Protecting Fragile Habitats
    • Reviving Traditional Knowledge
    • Facilitating Local Value Addition
    • Building Bargaining Capacity
slide5

Securing the Economic Base

  • Promoting Technology Cooperation
  • Building a Sub-regional Trading Block
  • Depending on MinimalExternal Assistance
slide6

Three Priorities for Human Security

  • Food Security
  • Water Security
  • Energy Security
slide7

Food Security – scenario

  • 430 million poor people

(nearly 30% of South Asia and 47% of the world)

  • 315 million people have insufficient food

(22% of South Asia)

    • While % hungry is reducing absolute numbers increasing
    • Slow progress in recent past
  • Half our children malnourished
  • Conflicts and disasters aggravate poverty and hunger
slide8

Food Security - challenges

  • Enhancing Agricultural Production & Productivity
    • Managing land use and availability of arable land
      • Arresting degradation of land
      • Checking the conversion of arable land for other uses
    • Improving irrigation systems and practices
      • Increasing the area under irrigation
      • Promoting efficient irrigation practices
    • Improving farming practices and cropping patterns
      • intensive vs organic farming
      • new technologies, methods and techniques
      • cropping patterns (legumes)
    • Rationalising the role of subsidies
slide9

Food Security - challenges

  • Other Supporting Measures
    • Improving Accessibility to available food
      • Role of the PDS and private sector
      • Improving rural infrastructure (cold storage, transportation)
    • Ensuring nutritional value of food consumed
      • proteins – pulses, dairy products, fish, eggs
      • focus on children – food for education
    • Agriculture – livelihood for the masses

(absorbs 60% labour contributing to 23% GDP)

      • recognise that land does not have the carrying capacity – skill and capacity building of youth for non-farm activities
    • Disaster Preparedness and Management
slide10

Water Security – scenario

  • Most countries beginning to experience moderate to severe water scarcity due to:
    • high population growth; coupled with
    • growth of irrigation, industrialisation & urbanisation
  • Scarcity likely to increase

(3,485 to 2,511 cum/yr/capita between 1985 to 2005)

  • Excessive dependence and depletion of ground water
  • Pollution of surface and ground water increasing rapidly
  • Impressive efforts in providing safe drinking water, but sanitation still lagging
  • Trans-boundary water wars – a reality
slide11

Water Security - challenges

  • Effective policies and implementation mechanisms for
    • trans-boundary basin management
    • ground water use
    • water as a right and yet priced
  • Technologies and incentives for
    • Promoting efficient irrigation practices
    • Pollution prevention
  • Participatory approaches for

(enterprise / community based)

    • drinking water and sanitation
    • farmer managed irrigation systems
slide12

Energy Security – scenario

  • Demand far exceeds supply in most countries
    • high population growth; coupled with
    • growth of industrialisation and urbanisation
  • Gap will significantly increase

(per capita requirements expected to double to 600 kg. oil equivalent by 2020)

  • Excessive dependence on
    • Coal (46%) – highly polluting (carbon and climate)
    • Petroleum (34%) – polluting, foreign exchange drain
  • Inadequate investments in renewables
  • Gross inefficiencies in energy transmission, distribution and use
  • No country can address issue alone – opportunity for regional cooperation
slide13

Energy Security – challenges

  • Investments in development of energy resources
    • conventional sources, especially hydro power
    • significant growth of renewable sources
  • Promoting energy efficiency and conservation
    • energy efficient technologies in industry, agriculture and households
    • reduction of transmission and distribution losses
    • addressing subsidies to agriculture and other users
  • Fostering Regional Cooperation
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