Human Security in South Asia
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Human Security in South Asia. Presented by George C Varughese Development Alternatives, New Delhi. at the Regional Media Workshop on Sustainable Development: A viable Goal Bangkok, 27th October 2008. South Asian Priorities for Action. Eliminating Poverty and Creating Human Security

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Human security in south asia

Human Security in South Asia

Presented by

George C Varughese

Development Alternatives, New Delhi

at the

Regional Media Workshop on

Sustainable Development: A viable Goal

Bangkok, 27th October 2008


Human security in south asia

South Asian Priorities for Action

  • Eliminating Poverty and Creating Human Security

  • Conserving the Natural Resource Endowments

  • Securing the Economic Base


Eliminating poverty creating human security

Managing Population Growth and its Impacts

Direct

– Awareness and incentives

Indirect

–Income generating opportunities, livelihood security, Infrastructure and facilities upgradation

Creating Human Security

Focus on

– Food, Income, Water, Energy, Health and Security from Natural Disasters

Eliminating Poverty & Creating Human Security


Human security in south asia

Conserving the Natural Resource Endowments

  • Arresting Industrial Pollution

    • Promoting Corporate Citizenship

    • Addressing Special Needs of Small & Medium Enterprises

    • Strengthening Regulatory Mechanisms

  • Managing Urbanisation

    • Controlling Migration

    • Addressing Urban Poverty and Slums

    • Upgrading Urban Infrastructure and Management Systems

    • Promoting Sustainable Consumption Patterns

  • Conserving Biodiversity

    • Assessing Endowments

    • Protecting Fragile Habitats

    • Reviving Traditional Knowledge

    • Facilitating Local Value Addition

    • Building Bargaining Capacity


Human security in south asia

Securing the Economic Base

  • Promoting Technology Cooperation

  • Building a Sub-regional Trading Block

  • Depending on MinimalExternal Assistance


Human security in south asia

Three Priorities for Human Security

  • Food Security

  • Water Security

  • Energy Security


Human security in south asia

Food Security – scenario

  • 430 million poor people

    (nearly 30% of South Asia and 47% of the world)

  • 315 million people have insufficient food

    (22% of South Asia)

    • While % hungry is reducing absolute numbers increasing

    • Slow progress in recent past

  • Half our children malnourished

  • Conflicts and disasters aggravate poverty and hunger


Human security in south asia

Food Security - challenges

  • Enhancing Agricultural Production & Productivity

    • Managing land use and availability of arable land

      • Arresting degradation of land

      • Checking the conversion of arable land for other uses

    • Improving irrigation systems and practices

      • Increasing the area under irrigation

      • Promoting efficient irrigation practices

    • Improving farming practices and cropping patterns

      • intensive vs organic farming

      • new technologies, methods and techniques

      • cropping patterns (legumes)

    • Rationalising the role of subsidies


Human security in south asia

Food Security - challenges

  • Other Supporting Measures

    • Improving Accessibility to available food

      • Role of the PDS and private sector

      • Improving rural infrastructure (cold storage, transportation)

    • Ensuring nutritional value of food consumed

      • proteins – pulses, dairy products, fish, eggs

      • focus on children – food for education

    • Agriculture – livelihood for the masses

      (absorbs 60% labour contributing to 23% GDP)

      • recognise that land does not have the carrying capacity – skill and capacity building of youth for non-farm activities

    • Disaster Preparedness and Management


Human security in south asia

Water Security – scenario

  • Most countries beginning to experience moderate to severe water scarcity due to:

    • high population growth; coupled with

    • growth of irrigation, industrialisation & urbanisation

  • Scarcity likely to increase

    (3,485 to 2,511 cum/yr/capita between 1985 to 2005)

  • Excessive dependence and depletion of ground water

  • Pollution of surface and ground water increasing rapidly

  • Impressive efforts in providing safe drinking water, but sanitation still lagging

  • Trans-boundary water wars – a reality


Human security in south asia

Water Security - challenges

  • Effective policies and implementation mechanisms for

    • trans-boundary basin management

    • ground water use

    • water as a right and yet priced

  • Technologies and incentives for

    • Promoting efficient irrigation practices

    • Pollution prevention

  • Participatory approaches for

    (enterprise / community based)

    • drinking water and sanitation

    • farmer managed irrigation systems


Human security in south asia

Energy Security – scenario

  • Demand far exceeds supply in most countries

    • high population growth; coupled with

    • growth of industrialisation and urbanisation

  • Gap will significantly increase

    (per capita requirements expected to double to 600 kg. oil equivalent by 2020)

  • Excessive dependence on

    • Coal (46%) – highly polluting (carbon and climate)

    • Petroleum (34%) – polluting, foreign exchange drain

  • Inadequate investments in renewables

  • Gross inefficiencies in energy transmission, distribution and use

  • No country can address issue alone – opportunity for regional cooperation


Human security in south asia

Energy Security – challenges

  • Investments in development of energy resources

    • conventional sources, especially hydro power

    • significant growth of renewable sources

  • Promoting energy efficiency and conservation

    • energy efficient technologies in industry, agriculture and households

    • reduction of transmission and distribution losses

    • addressing subsidies to agriculture and other users

  • Fostering Regional Cooperation


Human security in south asia

Thank You


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