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Food Defense. In a Beef Production Setting. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org. Is Our Food Safe From Attack?.

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Food defense

Food Defense

In a Beef Production Setting

Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.



The U.S. government has declared the food and agriculture sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.


Will this effect missouri
Will this Effect Missouri? sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.

  • Missouri ranks 2nd in the nation for number of cattle operations.

  • Missouri ranks 3rd in the nation for number of beef cows.

  • Missouri farms have estimated cash receipts of $5.82 billion/year.


How is food supply a critical infrastructure
How is Food Supply a Critical Infrastructure? sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.

  • Most states produce 30% or less of what it’s residents eat.

  • Most cities have only a 5 day food supply.

  • The average person’s food travels 1,300 miles from farm to table.


Case study bitter harvest
Case Study: Bitter Harvest sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.

  • 1973 Fire retardant (PBB) accidentally mixed into feed rations for cattle.

  • Over a year later sickness in animals, and humans is linked to PBBs.

  • Cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, and contaminated commodities are destroyed and buried.

  • 97% of humans living in

    Michigan during that time

    have PBBs in their system.


What type of harm could occur
What Type of Harm Could Occur? sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.

Intentional delivery of a harmful biological

or chemical agent to the food supply

system could cause:

  • Physical harm (illness or mortality)

  • Economic disruption

    • Direct

    • Indirect

    • International

  • Political unrest

  • Psychological harm – loss of confidence in food supply


Case study hopping mad
Case Study: Hopping Mad sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.

  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

  • Britain-1980’s outbreak killed millions of cattle

  • Humans died of Creuztfeldt-Jakob disease

  • Disrupted trade

  • Caused shift of consumer preference


-Cow/Calf Operation sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.


-Feedlot sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.


-Feed Mill sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.


Supply chain
-Supply Chain sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.


Transportation
-Transportation sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.


Sale barn
- Sale Barn sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.


What is food defense

What is sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.Food Defense?

Food Defense focuses on security, protecting the food supply from intentional contamination.

Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.


Is food defense different than biosecurity
Is Food Defense Different than Biosecurity? sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.

  • Food Defense focuses on protecting the food supply fromintentional contamination.

  • Biosecurity and Food Safety (HACCP) focus on protecting the food supply from unintentional contamination. They help with, but are not a substitute for food defense.


Who might intentionally contaminate an animal production facility
Who Might Intentionally Contaminate an Animal Production Facility?

  • Disgruntled employee/former employee

  • Contract or temporary employee

  • Members of terrorist or extremist groups

  • Truck driver

  • Affiliate of a competing facility

  • Visitor to facility


Biological agents of concern in a beef production facility
Biological Agents of Concern Facility?in a Beef Production Facility

  • Foreign Animal Disease (FAD)

    • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)-viral

    • Rinderpest (RPV)-viral

  • Zoonotic Disease

    • Anthrax-bacterial

    • Brucellosis-Bang’s disease, bacterial

    • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)-Mad Cow Disease, prion

Anthrax


Radiological agents
Radiological Agents Facility?

Livestock can be exposed to radiation via inhalation, ingestion of contaminated feed, or direct exposure.

  • Polonium 210

  • Plutonium

  • Uranium (U-235 or U-238)

  • Iodine 131 (I-131)


Chemical agents
Chemical Agents Facility?

  • Any Chemical not approved for use on the animals, or in their feed would be considered a contaminant.

  • Chemical agents used in acts of terrorism against livestock include:

    • Arsenic

    • Cyanide salt

    • Pesticides


What makes an attractive agent of intentional contamination
What Makes an Attractive Agent of Intentional Contamination? Facility?

  • Long incubation period/delayed effect

  • Highly effective

  • History of use

  • Available (easily produced in adequate quantity)

  • Low traceability


What do consumers think about food defense

What Facility?Do Consumers Think About Food Defense?

Following several major food recalls in the US, consumer surveys were conducted.

Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.




Who do consumers believe should pay for food defense
Who do Consumers Believe Food RecallsShould Pay for Food Defense?

Stinson et al., 2008


Products that consumers believe most likely to be intentionally contaminated
Products That Consumers Believe Most Likely to be Intentionally Contaminated

Stinson et al., 2008


Food defense plan

Food Intentionally Contaminated Defense Plan

Defense plans are encouraged but not required for farms and most food establishments.

Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.


Facilities currently required to participate in food defense
Facilities Currently Required to Participate in Food Defense Intentionally Contaminated

All vendors providing food for USDA feeding programs must now be in compliance with the Food Defense System.


Four steps for developing a food defense plan
Four Steps Intentionally Contaminatedfor Developing a Food Defense Plan

  • Assess the vulnerabilities

  • Write a plan

  • Evaluatethe plan

  • Maintain the plan


Assess the vulnerabilities
Assess Intentionally Contaminatedthe vulnerabilities

  • Gather a team of key personnel to make the assessment.

  • Think like someone who wants to harm your operation.

  • Look for areas where contamination would be spread through normal operations.

  • Look for sensitive areas that are not frequently observed.


Beef Farm Vulnerability Assessment Intentionally Contaminated


Countermeasures Intentionally Contaminated

Countermeasures are actions taken to shield vulnerable areas, reducing the risk of intentional contamination.


Areas to consider for countermeasure development
Areas to Consider for Countermeasure Development Intentionally Contaminated

  • Procedures

  • Facility

  • Technology

  • Personnel


Countermeasures for procedures
Countermeasures for Procedures Intentionally Contaminated

  • Workforce

  • Shipping and Receiving

  • Visitors and Customers

  • Marketing


Countermeasures for facility
Countermeasures for Facility Intentionally Contaminated

  • Light it

  • Lock it

  • Limit Access


Write the plan
Write Intentionally Contaminatedthe Plan

  • Develop a countermeasure to defend each vulnerable point identified as high risk.

  • Create a written plan including those countermeasures that are reasonable for the situation.

  • Identify the individual who will implement the countermeasure.

  • Set a timeline to implement the countermeasure.


Beef Farm Food Intentionally ContaminatedDefense Plan


What if the food supply is intentionally contaminated

What if the Food Supply is Intentionally ContaminatedIntentionally Contaminated?

Should such an event occur a timely and efficient response will be critical to minimizing the damage.


Develop a written response plan
Develop a Written Response Plan Intentionally Contaminated

  • Plan for handling of contaminated animals

  • Emergency Planning

    • Facility Map

    • Emergency Contact Phone List

    • Visitor Log

    • Supplier/Customer Contacts

    • Employee Emergency Information


Handling of contaminated animals
Handling of Intentionally ContaminatedContaminated Animals

  • First hold all potentially contaminated animals

  • Potentially contaminated animals will need to be quarantined prior to euthanasia.

  • Quarantine will need to be separate from non contaminated animals.

  • Prepare a plan for carcass disposal, to be reviewed by APHIS and state authorities in case of an intentional contamination.


Beef Farm Containment and Disposal Plan Intentionally Contaminated


Facility map
Facility Map Intentionally Contaminated

  • Name, address, and phone of owner/proprietor

  • Relationship of the facility to adjacent properties and/or structures.

  • Road access including transportation routes

  • Perimeter boundaries, include fences, and gates (with dimensions)


Facility map continued
Facility Map Intentionally Contaminatedcontinued

  • Buildings, outbuildings, doors, windows, AC/heating, ventilation

  • Utilities (water, gas, electric, phones) location and shutoff

  • Septic System and drainage areas with direction of flow

  • Web sites such as Google Earth www.earth.google.com


Happy Herefords Beef Farm Intentionally Contaminated

pond

Dandy Devons Organic Beef

pondd

Feed Storage

Row Crop Farm

House

Barn/Equipment Shed

Hay Shed

Hwy AA

Septic drainage

Phone, deliveries, AC

Owner: Murray Maine

4321 Hwy AA

Bovine, MO 65444

Home: 660-445-xxxx

Cell: 660-321-xxxx

corral

Electric and water shut offs

Main gate 10’


Beef Farm Emergency Intentionally ContaminatedPhone List


Beef Farm Supplier Contact List Intentionally Contaminated


Beef Farm Customer Contact List Intentionally Contaminated


Beef Farm Employee Emergency Contacts Intentionally Contaminated


Evaluate the plan
Evaluate Intentionally Contaminatedthe plan

  • Check the perimeter regularly.

  • Make unannounced entrances at various times.

  • Check locks in vulnerable areas.

  • Perform a mock quarantine.


Maintain the plan
Maintain Intentionally Contaminatedthe plan

  • Ensure that measures implemented continue to be effective.

  • Train the family/employees regarding their effort in:

    • Prevention

    • Detection

    • Response

  • Re-evaluate the plan annually or as operations or facilities change.


References
References Intentionally Contaminated

  • www.fsis.gov

  • www.bt.cdc.gov

  • www.dhs.gov


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