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Food Defense. In a Beef Production Setting. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, Is Our Food Safe From Attack?.

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Food Defense

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Food defense

Food Defense

In a Beef Production Setting

Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists,

Is our food safe from attack

Is Our Food Safe From Attack?

Food defense

The U.S. government has declared the food and agriculture sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.

Will this effect missouri

Will this Effect Missouri?

  • Missouri ranks 2nd in the nation for number of cattle operations.

  • Missouri ranks 3rd in the nation for number of beef cows.

  • Missouri farms have estimated cash receipts of $5.82 billion/year.

How is food supply a critical infrastructure

How is Food Supply a Critical Infrastructure?

  • Most states produce 30% or less of what it’s residents eat.

  • Most cities have only a 5 day food supply.

  • The average person’s food travels 1,300 miles from farm to table.

Case study bitter harvest

Case Study: Bitter Harvest

  • 1973 Fire retardant (PBB) accidentally mixed into feed rations for cattle.

  • Over a year later sickness in animals, and humans is linked to PBBs.

  • Cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, and contaminated commodities are destroyed and buried.

  • 97% of humans living in

    Michigan during that time

    have PBBs in their system.

What type of harm could occur

What Type of Harm Could Occur?

Intentional delivery of a harmful biological

or chemical agent to the food supply

system could cause:

  • Physical harm (illness or mortality)

  • Economic disruption

    • Direct

    • Indirect

    • International

  • Political unrest

  • Psychological harm – loss of confidence in food supply

Case study hopping mad

Case Study: Hopping Mad

  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

  • Britain-1980’s outbreak killed millions of cattle

  • Humans died of Creuztfeldt-Jakob disease

  • Disrupted trade

  • Caused shift of consumer preference

Food defense

-Cow/Calf Operation

Food defense


Food defense

-Feed Mill

Supply chain

-Supply Chain



Sale barn

- Sale Barn

What is food defense

What is Food Defense?

Food Defense focuses on security, protecting the food supply from intentional contamination.

Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists,

Is food defense different than biosecurity

Is Food Defense Different than Biosecurity?

  • Food Defense focuses on protecting the food supply fromintentional contamination.

  • Biosecurity and Food Safety (HACCP) focus on protecting the food supply from unintentional contamination. They help with, but are not a substitute for food defense.

Who might intentionally contaminate an animal production facility

Who Might Intentionally Contaminate an Animal Production Facility?

  • Disgruntled employee/former employee

  • Contract or temporary employee

  • Members of terrorist or extremist groups

  • Truck driver

  • Affiliate of a competing facility

  • Visitor to facility

Biological agents of concern in a beef production facility

Biological Agents of Concernin a Beef Production Facility

  • Foreign Animal Disease (FAD)

    • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)-viral

    • Rinderpest (RPV)-viral

  • Zoonotic Disease

    • Anthrax-bacterial

    • Brucellosis-Bang’s disease, bacterial

    • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)-Mad Cow Disease, prion


Radiological agents

Radiological Agents

Livestock can be exposed to radiation via inhalation, ingestion of contaminated feed, or direct exposure.

  • Polonium 210

  • Plutonium

  • Uranium (U-235 or U-238)

  • Iodine 131 (I-131)

Chemical agents

Chemical Agents

  • Any Chemical not approved for use on the animals, or in their feed would be considered a contaminant.

  • Chemical agents used in acts of terrorism against livestock include:

    • Arsenic

    • Cyanide salt

    • Pesticides

What makes an attractive agent of intentional contamination

What Makes an Attractive Agent of Intentional Contamination?

  • Long incubation period/delayed effect

  • Highly effective

  • History of use

  • Available (easily produced in adequate quantity)

  • Low traceability

What do consumers think about food defense

What Do Consumers Think About Food Defense?

Following several major food recalls in the US, consumer surveys were conducted.

Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists,

Consumer confidence in food defense systems after national food recalls

Consumer Confidence in Food Defense Systems After National Food Recalls

Stinson et al., 2008

Who do consumers believe is responsible for food defense

Who Do Consumers Believe is Responsible for Food Defense?

Stinson et al., 2008

Who do consumers believe should pay for food defense

Who do Consumers Believe Should Pay for Food Defense?

Stinson et al., 2008

Products that consumers believe most likely to be intentionally contaminated

Products That Consumers Believe Most Likely to be Intentionally Contaminated

Stinson et al., 2008

Food defense plan

Food Defense Plan

Defense plans are encouraged but not required for farms and most food establishments.

Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists,

Facilities currently required to participate in food defense

Facilities Currently Required to Participate in Food Defense

All vendors providing food for USDA feeding programs must now be in compliance with the Food Defense System.

Four steps for developing a food defense plan

Four Steps for Developing a Food Defense Plan

  • Assess the vulnerabilities

  • Write a plan

  • Evaluatethe plan

  • Maintain the plan

Assess the vulnerabilities

Assessthe vulnerabilities

  • Gather a team of key personnel to make the assessment.

  • Think like someone who wants to harm your operation.

  • Look for areas where contamination would be spread through normal operations.

  • Look for sensitive areas that are not frequently observed.

Food defense

Beef Farm Vulnerability Assessment

Food defense


Countermeasures are actions taken to shield vulnerable areas, reducing the risk of intentional contamination.

Areas to consider for countermeasure development

Areas to Consider for Countermeasure Development

  • Procedures

  • Facility

  • Technology

  • Personnel

Countermeasures for procedures

Countermeasures for Procedures

  • Workforce

  • Shipping and Receiving

  • Visitors and Customers

  • Marketing

Countermeasures for facility

Countermeasures for Facility

  • Light it

  • Lock it

  • Limit Access

Write the plan

Writethe Plan

  • Develop a countermeasure to defend each vulnerable point identified as high risk.

  • Create a written plan including those countermeasures that are reasonable for the situation.

  • Identify the individual who will implement the countermeasure.

  • Set a timeline to implement the countermeasure.

Food defense

Beef Farm Food Defense Plan

What if the food supply is intentionally contaminated

What if the Food Supply is Intentionally Contaminated?

Should such an event occur a timely and efficient response will be critical to minimizing the damage.

Develop a written response plan

Develop a Written Response Plan

  • Plan for handling of contaminated animals

  • Emergency Planning

    • Facility Map

    • Emergency Contact Phone List

    • Visitor Log

    • Supplier/Customer Contacts

    • Employee Emergency Information

Handling of contaminated animals

Handling of Contaminated Animals

  • First hold all potentially contaminated animals

  • Potentially contaminated animals will need to be quarantined prior to euthanasia.

  • Quarantine will need to be separate from non contaminated animals.

  • Prepare a plan for carcass disposal, to be reviewed by APHIS and state authorities in case of an intentional contamination.

Food defense

Beef Farm Containment and Disposal Plan

Facility map

Facility Map

  • Name, address, and phone of owner/proprietor

  • Relationship of the facility to adjacent properties and/or structures.

  • Road access including transportation routes

  • Perimeter boundaries, include fences, and gates (with dimensions)

Facility map continued

Facility Map continued

  • Buildings, outbuildings, doors, windows, AC/heating, ventilation

  • Utilities (water, gas, electric, phones) location and shutoff

  • Septic System and drainage areas with direction of flow

  • Web sites such as Google Earth

Food defense

Happy Herefords Beef Farm


Dandy Devons Organic Beef


Feed Storage

Row Crop Farm


Barn/Equipment Shed

Hay Shed

Hwy AA

Septic drainage

Phone, deliveries, AC

Owner: Murray Maine

4321 Hwy AA

Bovine, MO 65444

Home: 660-445-xxxx

Cell: 660-321-xxxx


Electric and water shut offs

Main gate 10’

Food defense

Beef Farm Emergency Phone List

Food defense

Beef Farm Supplier Contact List

Food defense

Beef Farm Customer Contact List

Food defense

Beef Farm Employee Emergency Contacts

Evaluate the plan

Evaluatethe plan

  • Check the perimeter regularly.

  • Make unannounced entrances at various times.

  • Check locks in vulnerable areas.

  • Perform a mock quarantine.

Maintain the plan

Maintainthe plan

  • Ensure that measures implemented continue to be effective.

  • Train the family/employees regarding their effort in:

    • Prevention

    • Detection

    • Response

  • Re-evaluate the plan annually or as operations or facilities change.






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