Experimental study of the machian mass fluctuation effect using a n thrust balance
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Experimental Study of the Machian Mass Fluctuation Effect Using a µN Thrust Balance. N. Buldrini, K. Marhold, B. Seifert and M. Tajmar Space Propulsion – ARC Seibersdorf Research [email protected] 1. 2. Machian Mass Fluctuations. Impulse Term. Exotic Mass Generator term.

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Experimental Study of the Machian Mass Fluctuation Effect Using a µN Thrust Balance

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Experimental study of the machian mass fluctuation effect using a n thrust balance

Experimental Study of the Machian Mass Fluctuation Effect Using a µN Thrust Balance

N. Buldrini, K. Marhold, B. Seifert and M. Tajmar

Space Propulsion – ARC Seibersdorf Research

[email protected]


Machian mass fluctuations

1

2

Machian Mass Fluctuations

Impulse Term

Exotic Mass Generator term

Always negative!


Machian mass fluctuations1

Machian Mass Fluctuations

Mass Fluctuation in a Capacitor

Delivered Power

Capacitor Volume


Mass fluctuations for propulsion

Mass Fluctuations for Propulsion

Ballast

Mass

FluctuatingMass

What if you can make the mass of a capacitor fluctuating and act on it in a direction when it is heavier and in the opposite direction when it is lighter?


Machian mass fluctuations2

Machian Mass Fluctuations

The Devices

Actuator(piezoelectric material)

Capacitor

Thrust

Ballast

Mass

~

Power Supply


Machian mass fluctuations3

The “Flux Capacitor”

Machian Mass Fluctuations

The Devices

Coil

~

Capacitor

~

Electric

Field

Power Supply

MagneticField

Force


Machian mass fluctuations4

Machian Mass Fluctuations

The Devices

F

E

B


Experimental study of the machian mass fluctuation effect using a n thrust balance

The Tested Devices

E

B

Thrust

Direction

Capacitors are under the coil

Mach-5CClaimed Thrust:~ 30μN

Mach-6CClaimed Thrust:100-200μN


Experimental study of the machian mass fluctuation effect using a n thrust balance

The Tested Devices


The experimental setup

The Experimental Setup

Vacuum Chamber and Thrust Balance

Thrust Balance arrangement inside the Chamber. Balance succesfully tested with In-FEEP thrusters!

Device

Pivot

Vacuum Chamber used for testingMaterial: Stainless SteelVacuum: 10-6 mbar

Sensor Assmbly


The experimental setup1

The Experimental Setup

Device Arrangement on the Balance


The experimental setup2

The Experimental Setup

Thrust Balance

Device Mounted on the Balance


The experimental setup3

The Experimental Setup

Thrust Balance

C-Flex G-10Flexural Pivots

Thrust Balance Pivotand Device Feeding Cables


The experimental setup4

The Experimental Setup

Thrust Balance

Optic Sensor Detail

Optic Sensor and Damping Actuator Assemblies


The experimental setup5

The Experimental Setup

Thrust Balance

Philtec D64 Fiber OpticDisplacement Sensor

  • Principle: Measures the reflection of light

  • Only fiber optic parts in the vacuum chamber (no EMI)

  • Noise: 0.008 µm (DC-100Hz)


The experimental setup6

The Experimental Setup

Device Wiring Schematics

Same setup used by Woodward and March. Amplifiers from March and original step-up transfomers from Woodward.


Experimental results

Experimental Results

Mach-5C

This kind of behaviour indicates the presence of thermal effects on the feeding wires


Experimental results1

Experimental Results

Mach-5C

Predicted thrust at 90° phase shift between capacitor voltage and coil current: ~ 5µN

Zero thrust predicted at 180° phase shift

Thermal drift is still present.


Experimental results2

Experimental Results

Mach-6C

- Capacitor Power

- Coil Power- Thrust Trace

Cap.voltage: 3.2 kVpCoil Field: 250 GaussFrequency: 52 kHzCap.V / Coil I - Phase Relationship: 90degExpect. Thrust: ~150µN

The thermal drift has been reduced re-arranging the wiring and reducing the firing time to 2 seconds


Experimental results3

Experimental Results

Mach-6C

50µN Pulse Superimposed

- Capacitor Power

Cap.voltage: 2.5 kVpCoil Field: 200 GaussFrequency: 55 kHzCap.V / Coil I - Phase Relationship: 270degExpect. Thrust: ~50µN

- Coil Power- Thrust Trace

A pulse of 50µN was generated during the firing time by the calibration actuator, to test the response of the balance


Experimental results4

Experimental Results

Balance Response to Short Pulses

A series of short pulses was generated using the calibration actuator, to evaluate the balance response at different thrust/pulse duration values


Experimental results5

Experimental Results

Mach-6C

Mach-6C was sent back to Woodward to be tested again

Then the device was sent back again to ARC-sr

Tests in air by Woodward showed a thrust effect possibily due to an electromagnetic interaction.The device has been then potted, and tested in vacuum. A residual thrust of 100-200µN was recorded


Experimental results6

Experimental Results

Mach-6C Potted

Cap.voltage: 3 kVpCoil Field: 200 GaussFrequency: 52 kHzCap.V / Coil I - Phase Relationship: 270degExpect. Thrust: ~75µN

The phase relationship is changing during firing time, expecially at high capacitor power levels. Two calibration pulses of 50µN were generated with duration of 0.8 and 0.5 seconds to test the response of the balance in case of shorter thrust events


Experimental results7

Experimental Results

Mach-6C Potted

Capacitor + CoilEnergized together

Only CapacitorEnergized


Experimental results8

Experimental Results

Mach-6C Potted

Only CapacitorEnergized (Shielded Cable)

Only CapacitorEnergized


Experimental results9

Experimental Results

Test at Higher Frequency / Different Dielectric

Dielectric: Titanium Oxide

Series Tank Circuit

Self-contained Device

Voltage: 2.3 kVp

Frequency: 2 MHz

Expected Thurst: 1 ÷ 6 mNNo thrust was detected within the sensibility of the used electronic balance (0.1mN)


Conclusions and recommendations

Conclusions and recommendations

  • Mach thrusters, tested by Woodward, were characterized using highly sensitive µN thrust balance used for electric propulsion

  • Our measurements rule out a thrust above 50% of the theoretical predictions and previous claims. It is likely, that this threshold is even reduced to 10% as indicated by part of our data.

  • A device operating at higher frequencies and with different dielectric was designed and built at ARC-sr. No thrust of the magnitude predicted by the models developed by Woodward/March/Palfreyman was observed

  • An upgrade of the sensor setup presently used by Woodward/March to a torsion balance or a ballistic pendulum setup is recommended

  • Due to the difficulties in keeping the right phase relationship between E and B fields, and thus same operating conditions, the development of a device based on a tank design is recommended

  • The development of a self-contained device similar to the one built at ARC-sr is proposed as well, using barium titanate as dielectric


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