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Trig Functions of Real Numbers. Characteristics of the six trig graphs (5.3)(2). POD. If sin θ = 4/5, and θ is in quadrant II, find cos θ sin ( π - θ ) sin (- θ ) What can we say about the sine of any obtuse angles? How about the sine of opposite angles?. Review from last time.

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Trig functions of real numbers

Trig Functions of Real Numbers

Characteristics of the six trig graphs (5.3)(2)


POD

If sin θ = 4/5, and θ is in quadrant II, find

cos θ

sin (π-θ)

sin (-θ)

What can we say about the sine of any obtuse angles?

How about the sine of opposite angles?


Review from last time
Review from last time

Using the unit circle and the graphs on the handout or calculator, compare

cos (30°) cos (-30°)

sin (π/4) sin (-π/4)

tan (π/6) tan (-π/6)

What might that tell us about the nature of these functions?


Consider a reciprocal function
Consider a reciprocal function

What do you think the graph of

y = csc θ would look like? Let’s build it off of the sine graph.


Consider a reciprocal function1
Consider a reciprocal function

Start with the sine graph.

Plot reciprocal y-values for x-values.

Where do we not get y-values?


Consider a reciprocal function2
Consider a reciprocal function

See how the ranges of the reciprocal functions are related?

If we remove the sine graph, we have this. Where are the vertical asymptotes?

What are the domain and range?

Is it even, odd, neither?


Consider a reciprocal function3
Consider a reciprocal function

y = csc (x)

an odd function

asymptotes at x = ±πn

where sin(θ) = 0


Consider another reciprocal function
Consider another reciprocal function

How would the graph of y = sec θ compare with this?


Consider another reciprocal function1
Consider another reciprocal function

How would the graph of

y = sec θ compare with this?

Where are the vertical asymptotes?

What are the domain and range?

Even, odd, or neither?


Consider another reciprocal function2
Consider another reciprocal function

y = sec θ

an even function

vertical asymptotes at

x = π/2±πn,

where cos(θ) = 0


Consider the third reciprocal function
Consider the third reciprocal function

y = cot θ

Where are the vertical asymptotes? Why?

What are the domain and range?


Consider the third reciprocal function1
Consider the third reciprocal function

y = cot θ

vertical asymptotes at

x = ±πn,

where sin(θ) = 0

or where tan (θ) = 0


Summary chart do we need to do this
Summary chart– do we need to do this?

Fill in the chart below for the characteristics of the trig functions.

Functiondomainrangeeven/oddsymmetric element


Summary chart let s do this
Summary chart—let’s do this.

Fill in the chart below for the characteristics of three primary trig functions.

Functionperiodamplitudeasymptotes

The full chart for all six trig functions is on p. 401.


Formulas for negative angles
Formulas for negative angles

Since sine and tangent are odd functions,

sin(-x) = -sin(x)

tan(-x) = -tan(x)

csc(-x) = -csc(x)

cot(-x) = -cot(x)

In other words, change the sign of the angle, change the sign of the trig value. You can see this especially clearly on the graph.


Formulas for negative angles1
Formulas for negative angles

Since cosine is an even function

cos(x) = cos(-x)

sec(x) = sec(-x)

In other words, change the sign of the angle, the trig value stays the same. You can see this on the graph.


Practice an identity
Practice an identity

Use the negative angle formulas to verify the identity.


Practice an identity1
Practice an identity

Use the negative angle formulas to verify the identity.


Finally
Finally…

… an interesting graph. On calculators, graph f(x) = sin(x)/x on the interval . What does the graph do as and ?


Finally1
Finally…

Although we know there is a hole at

x = 0, it appears that as x approaches 0 from either direction.


Finally2
Finally…

An interesting result from this interesting graph is that, if x is in radians and close to 0, then

which means that

for very small angles. Test if for

x = .03, .02, .01.


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