Elements of the Promotion Mix. Advertising. Ingredients of the Promotion Mix. Public Relations. Personal Selling. Sales Promotion. The Communication Process. Noise. Sender. Encoding. Channel. Decoding. Receiver. Channel. Goals and Tasks of Promotion. Informing. Reminding.
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Either not effective or inefficient
Nature of the Product
Stage in the Product
Target Market Characteristics
Type of Buying Decision
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Analyze the Marketplace
Identify Target Market
Set Promotion Objectives
Develop Promotion Budget
Choose Promotion Mix
Promotion objectives should:
be measurable, concrete
be based on sound research, with a
well-defined target audience
reinforce the overall marketing plan and
relate to specific marketing objectives
Objective: ToInform (Awareness)
To increase the top-of-mind awareness level for Peter Pan peanut butter from 16 percent to 24 percent
Objective: To Persuade (Attitudinal)
To increase the percentage of parents who feel that Peter Pan peanut butter is the best peanut butter for their children from
22 percent to 35 percent
Objective: To Remind
To remind consumers that Peter Pan peanut butter is the creamiest peanut butter and is available at their nearest grocery and convenience stores
• Arbitrary Allocation
• All - You - Can - Afford
• Competitive Parity
• Percent of Sales
• Market Share
• Objective and Task
• National Advertising Division (NAD)
• National Advertising Review Board (NARB)
• Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
as ad budget becomes
Return on Advertising Expenditures
Determine the campaign objectives.
Make creative decisions.
Make media decisions.
Evaluate the campaign.
Save money, keep from losing money
Love or Romance
Sell cosmetics and perfumes
Social embarrassment, growing old, losing health, power
Celebrity endorsement effective
Fast-food and microwave products
Fun and Pleasure
Vacations, beer, amusement parks
Vanity and Egotism
Expensive, conspicuous items
Mood or Image
• Consumer jury tests
• Portfolio or unfinished rough tests
• Physiological tests
• Recognition tests
• Recall tests
• Attitude measures
• Audience size measurement
New Product Publicity
Type of buyerDesired resultsSales promotion examples
Loyal customersReinforce behavior,•Loyalty marketing programs,
People who buy yourincrease consumption,such as frequent-buyer cards
product most or allchange purchase timing or frequent-shopper clubs
of the time•Bonus packs that give loyal
consumers an incentive to
stock up or premiums offered
in return for proofs-of-purchase
Competitor’sBreak loyalty, persuade •Sampling to introduce your
customersto switch to your brandproduct’s superior qualities
People who buy acompared to their brand
competitor’s product•Sweepstakes, contests, or
most or all of the timepremiums that create interest
in the product
Brand switchersPersuade to buy your•Any promotion that lowers the
People who buy abrand more oftenprice of the product, such as
variety of productscoupons, price-off packages,
in the categoryand bonus packs
•Trade deals that help make the
product more readily available
than competing products
Price buyersAppeal with low prices•Coupons, price-off packages,
People whoor supply added valuerefunds, or trade deals that
consistently buy thethat makes price lessreduce the price of brand to
least expensive brandimportantmatch that of the brand that
would have been purchased
Source: From Sales Promotion Essentials, 2E by Don. E. Schultz, William A. Robinson, and Lisa A. Petrison. Reprinted by permission of NTC Publishing Group, Lincolnwood, IL.
Frequent Buyer Programs
Personal Selling is more important if...
The product has a high value.
It is a custom-made product.
There are few customers.
The product is technically complex.
Customers are geographically concentrated.
Advertising/Sales Promotion is more important if...
The product has a low value.
It is a standardized product.
There are many customers.
The product is simple to understand.
Customers are geographically dispersed.
Traditional Personal Selling
Sell products (goods and services)
Focus on closing sales
Limited sales planning
Spend most contact time telling customers about product
Conduct “product-specific” needs assessment
“Lone-wolf” approach to the account
Proposals and presentations basedon pricing and product features
Sales follow-up focused on product delivery
Sell advice, assistance, and counsel
Focus on improving the customer’s bottom line
Considers sales planning as top priority
Spend most contact time attempting to build a problem-solving environment with the customer
Conduct discovery in the full scope of the customer’s operations
Team approach to the account
Proposals and presentations based on profit impact and strategic benefits to the customer
Sales follow-up is long term, focused on long-term relationship enhancement
Source: Robert M. Peterson, Patrick L. Shul, and George H. Lucas, Jr., “Consultative Selling: Walking the Walk in the New Selling Environment,”
National Conference on Sales Management, Proceedings, March 1996.
Generating Sales Leads
Qualifying Sales Leads
Making the Sales Approach
Making the Sales Presentation
Closing the Sale
Set Sales Objectives
Evaluate Sales Force
Structure Sales Force
Major Tasks of Sales Management
Determine Sales Force Size
Motivate Sales Force
Develop Compen-sation Plan
Train Sales Force
Recruit Sales Force
Establish Pricing Goals
Estimate Demand, Costs,
Fine-Tune Base Price
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Unfair Trade Practices