Causes of malnutrition m odule 5
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 21

Causes of malnutrition M odule 5 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 380 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Causes of malnutrition M odule 5. Learning Objectives. Be able to explain the causal factors of malnutrition that are identified in the conceptual model and the level they act on Understand the application and limitations of the conceptual framework

Download Presentation

Causes of malnutrition M odule 5

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Causes of malnutrition m odule 5

Causes of malnutritionModule 5


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Be able to explain the causal factors of malnutrition that are identified in the conceptual model and the level they act on

  • Understand the application and limitations of the conceptual framework

  • Recognise the links between inadequate household food security, inadequate care and inadequate services and an unhealthy environment as inter-related causes in both emergencies and non-emergencies

  • Understand how basic causes can affect nutritional status, especially in emergencies

  • Understand how seasonal factors may influence the nutrition situation and how seasonal changes act on the different levels of causality.


Causes of malnutrition module 5

What causes malnutrition?


The conceptual model for undernutrition

Undernutrition

Inadequate food intake

Disease

Immediate causes

Household food insecurity

Poor social and care practices

Poor PublicHealth

Underlying causes

Formal and informal infrastructure/political ideology/resources

Basic causes

The conceptual model for undernutrition


Immediate causes of undernutrition

Immediate causes of undernutrition

  • Undernutrition occurs when there is

    • insufficient nutrient intake and/or

    • an increase of nutrient needs that prevents effective utilization of nutrients (i.e. morbidity)

  • Nutritional requirements are defined by

    • Macronutrients: needed in large amounts and include protein, carbohydrate and fat.

    • Micronutrients: needed in much smaller amounts and include vitamins and minerals


Causes of malnutrition module 5

Inadequate diet

Loss of appetite

Malabsorption

Increased need for energy and nutrients

Weight loss

Growth faltering

Lowered immunity

Increased susceptibility

Increased severity and duration of disease

Malnutrition and Infection Cycle


Infection and undernutrition in emergencies

Infection and undernutritionin emergencies

  • Most mortalityin the initial period of an emergency is caused by four infectious diseases: diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, measles and malaria, as well as undernutrition

    • Malnutrition and infection often occur at the same time. Malnutrition can increase the risk of infection while infection can cause malnutrition leading to a vicious cycle.


I nteractions between malnutrition and major diseases

Interactions between malnutrition and major diseases


Causes of malnutrition module 5

Which factors lead to an insufficient intake or to an increase of the needs?


The conceptual model for undernutrition1

Undernutrition

Inadequate food intake

Disease

Immediate causes

Household food insecurity

Poor social and care practices

Poor PublicHealth

Underlying causes

Formal and informal infrastructure/political ideology/resources

Basic causes

The conceptual model for undernutrition


Underlying causes of malnutrition household food insecurity

Underlying causes of malnutrition: Household food insecurity

  • Household food security is defined as sustainable access to safe food of sufficient quality and quantity to ensure adequate intake and healthy nutrition for all family members

  • It depends on access to food as well as its availability and proper utilizationby each person

  • Two examples:

    • Disasters can destroy food stocks in the home, warehouses and where crops are grown (land, water, forests and grazing ground), as well as incomes

    • Some of the major famines in the world have been caused by market shocks which have resulted in an inability to buy food due to high food prices


Underlying causes of malnutrition poor social and care practices

Underlying causes of malnutrition:Poor social and care practices

  • Caring practices are the way community members, including the vulnerable such as children, the elderly and the sick, are fed, nurtured, taught and guided. Care practices include:

    • Caring for and supporting vulnerable groups

    • Optimal infant and young child feeding practices

    • Health protection behaviour

    • Psycho-social support

    • Caring for and supporting mothers

  • Cultural factors and resources, like income, time and knowledge, determine caring practices

  • Societal values e.g., attitudes towards modern health services, water & sanitation, women’s education, unequal division of labour


Underlying causes of malnutrition poor public health

Underlying causes of malnutrition:Poor public health

  • Health refers to access to affordable, good quality curative and preventative health services and a healthy environment

  • Access to quality health services is essential and is determined by physical distance, cost, transport, poor quality, as well as cost in time

    • A complete disruption of health services is frequent in emergencies

  • Health environment Clean water and sanitation facilities, shelter, cold and overcrowding

    • In emergency situations the environment often deteriorates rapidly and leads to ill-health


Basic causes

Basic causes

  • Political, legal and cultural factors may defeat the best efforts of households to attain good nutrition, depending on how:

    • the rights of women and girls are protected by law and custom

    • control that women have over resources

    • political and economic systems that determine how income and assets are distributed

    • ideologies and policies that govern social sectors.

  • Political discriminationdue to religion, ethnic and clan can lead to systematic marginalization from food and other relief services and add on top of economic marginalization that is the basic cause of malnutrition in many emergencies

    • In emergencies, the injustices of the overall system are often exacerbated and can lead to the nutritional status of minority groups deteriorating rapidly

  • Volatile food prices impact on the poorest means difficult decisions have to be made – eating less food, missing a meal and eating less diverse diet – which have detrimental impact on nutritional status. High food prices result in nutritional emergencies

  • Climate change chronic emergencies often occur in places with challenging physical environment – frequent droughts, floods, intense heat. Climate change negatively impacts on food and nutrition security, quality of crops, access to safe water and for agricultural purposes, health.


The conceptual model for undernutrition2

Undernutrition

Inadequate food intake

Disease

Immediate causes

Household food insecurity

Poor social and care practices

Poor PublicHealth

Underlying causes

Formal and informal infrastructure/political ideology/resources

Basic causes

The conceptual model for undernutrition


Limitations of the conceptual framework

Limitations of the Conceptual Framework

  • Understandably the conceptual framework focuses on causes of undernutrition and does not take into consideration other forms of malnutrition – overweight and obesity

    • Definition of malnutrition encompasses stunting, wasting, micronutrients deficiencies and obesity (overnutrition)

  • The conceptual model does not take into account individual factors (e.g., genetic) that may affect nutritional status

  • It does not take into account how the different factors that impact on nutrition may be affected by seasonality


Role of seasonality

Role of seasonality

  • Underlying causes are subject to seasonal variation:

    • access to food is typically reduced prior to harvest, food stocks are low and food prices inflated – “hunger season”

    • quality of child care is compromised when farmers are busy (harvest, etc)

    • diarrhoeal diseases are more common in the rainy season, while malaria, dengue and yellow fevers tend to be common after the rains

    • during the rainy season, drinking water is more likely to be collected from nearby contaminated water pools

    • In emergencies , the impact of these seasonal changes may become more pronounced and have greater effect on the poorest people and malnutrition prevalence may increase

      Seasonal calendars can be drawn to illustrate the seasonal variation of various factors affecting nutritional status.


Seasonal calendar afghanistan 2009 2010

Seasonal calendar: Afghanistan 2009 – 2010


Causes of malnutrition module 5

Causes of stunting

8.1 cm

  • Poor living conditions - low parental education, poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy, etc

  • Poverty

  • Consequences include:

    • Higher morbidity and mortality

    • Lower educational achievement

    • Reduced productivity in adulthood.

2 years 6 months

11.6 kg.

86.4 cm

Age: 2 years 9 months

Weight: 10.7 kg.

Height: 78.3 cm


Causes of obesity in children

Causes of Obesity in Children

  • Inadequate pre-natal care

  • Suboptimal infant and young child nutrition

  • Poor diet

  • Low levels of physical activity

  • Consequences:

    • Obesity in adulthood

    • Disability in adulthood

    • Cardiovascular disease

    • Diabetes

    • Premature death


Key messages

Key Messages

  • Conceptual model is a useful tool to help understand the many factors that impact on nutrition status

    • The immediate causes of malnutrition are inadequate diet and disease, both of which can make each other worse; this is referred to as the infection-malnutrition cycle

    • There are 3 main underlying causes: inadequate household food security, inadequate care and inadequate health services and an unhealthy household environment

    • The basic causes of malnutrition are related to potential resources and the social, political, ideological and economic context

  • Immediate and underlying causes should be effectively addressed during emergencies

  • The conceptual model can be used to create a check list to identify and prioritize short and long term needs of vulnerable groups and the general population during an emergency


  • Login