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5. C H A P T E R. Stress Management. F I V E. What is Stress?. An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being Stressors- an environmental condition or stimuli that places physical or emotional demand on a person

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stress management

5

C H A P T E R

StressManagement

F I V E

what is stress
What is Stress?
  • An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being
  • Stressors- an environmental condition or stimuli that places physical or emotional demand on a person
  • Examples
    • Physical
    • Emotional
types of stress
Types of stress
  • Episodic Stress- pattern of high stress followed by intervals of relief
  • Chronic Stress- constant confrontation of stressors without relief
    • Effects are:
      • constant
      • additive
  • Distress- stress that has a negative consequence on a person’s well-being
general adaptation syndrome
General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Automatic defense system to help cope with with environmental demands
  • Three stages of adaptation
    • Alarm reaction- perception of stressor
    • Resistance- ability to cope rises above normal because of activated defense mechanisms such as adrenaline
    • Exhaustion- body must rest and recover from heightened resistance stage
  • Prolonged resistance leads to system breakdown
general adaptation syndrome5
General Adaptation Syndrome

Stage 1

Alarm Reaction

Stage 2

Resistance

Stage 3

Exhaustion

DANGER ZONE

Normal

Level of

Resistance

stressors and stress outcomes

Individual

Differences

Consequences

of Stress

Physiological

Behavioral

Psychological

Stress

over time

Nonwork

Stressors

Stressors and Stress Outcomes

Work

Stressors

Physical

environment

Role-related

Interpersonal

Organizational

role related stressors
Role-Related Stressors
  • Role conflict
    • interrole conflict
    • intrarole conflict
    • person-role conflict
  • Role ambiguity
    • uncertain duties, authority
  • Role overload/underload
  • Task characteristics
    • decisions, monitoring, traffic problems
stress research
Stress Research
  • Type A and complexity leads to cardiovascular problems
  • Job Control, Job Complexity, Self-Efficacy interact to influence blood pressure
  • Burnout as a process
  • Emotional Exhaustion - lack of energy and a feeling that one’s emotional resources are used up
  • Coping Strategy for emotional buffer
  • Sense of inadequacy
job burnout process

Emotional

Exhaustion

Physiological,

psychological,

and behavioral

consequences

Depersonalization

Reduced Personal

Accomplishment

Job Burnout Process

Interpersonal and

Role-Related Stressors

antecedents
Antecedents
  • Job Characteristics - client interactions, overload, ambiguity, conflict
  • Organizational Characteristics - reward and punishment systems, job context (shift, psych environment, etc.)
  • Personal Characteristics - Age, Social Support, Marriage, Expectations, Career progress
consequences
Consequences
  • Attitudinal
  • Behavioral
  • Interpersonal
social support and undermining
Social Support and Undermining
  • Social Support- interpersonal transactions with others that provide either emotional or informational support
    • reduces effects of stress
      • feel valued
      • feel capable of handling a situation
      • buffers effects, someone to talk to, etc.
  • Social Undermining
cognitive dissonance theory
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • Leon Festinger 1967
  • Three aspects of attitudes must follow each other
    • cognitive aspect- knowledge about an object
    • affective aspect- liking of the object
    • behavioral aspect- behavior toward the object
  • If dissonance is present there is stress and a need to change an aspect of the attitude to produce agreement among the elements
changing aspects of attitudes
Changing Aspects of Attitudes
  • Affected by level of control
    • “can I control the aspects of my attitude?”
    • “Do I have a choice regarding performance of the behavior?”
  • Behaviors are set by habit and view of others
  • Ignore current knowledge
  • Seek knew knowledge
  • Alter beliefs
  • Hypocrasy effects level of dissonance
emotional labor
Emotional Labor
  • Experiencing dissonance as a part of an individual’s role
  • Presenting a friendly attitude while holding a negative attitude
  • Mainly in service positions where employees must always be “happy”
    • flight attendants
    • secretaries
  • Backstage areas
    • out of sight of customer
interpersonal stressor sexual harassment
Interpersonal Stressor: Sexual Harassment
  • Unwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on work environment or job performance
  • Quid pro quo
    • employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relations
  • Hostile work environment
    • an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment
interpersonal stressor workplace violence
Interpersonal Stressor: Workplace Violence
  • 2 million people experience some form of violence at work each year
  • Most common cause of work-related death for women; second most common for men
  • Severe distress after experiencing or observing violence
  • Also stress from working in high-risk jobs
work family stressors
Work-Family Stressors
  • Time-based conflict
    • due to work schedule, commuting, travel
    • for women -- still do most household chores
  • Strain-based conflict
    • work stress affects home, and vice versa
  • Role behavior conflict
    • incompatible work and family roles
top 10 life stressors
Top 10 Life Stressors

10. Retirement or quitting

9. Marital reconciliation

8. Fired from work

7. Marriage

6. Personal injury or illness

5. Death of a family member

4. Jail Term

3. Marital Separation

2. Divorce

1. Death

stress and occupations
Stress and Occupations

Accountant

Artist

Auto Mechanic

Forester

Hospital manager

Physician (GP)

Psychologist

School principal

Police officer

911 operator

U.S. president

Waiter/waitress

Low-Stress

Occupations

Medium-Stress

Occupations

High-Stress

Occupations

individual differences in stress
Individual Differences in Stress
  • Perceive the situation differently
  • Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor
  • Use different stress coping strategies
  • Personality Type
personality type
Personality Type
  • Type A- impatient, restless, competitive, aggressive, under intense perceived time pressure, always attempting to accomplish several things at once
    • need job and career control
    • have more health problems and shorter careers
  • Type B- does not feel pressure, works slowly and enjoyably on a variety of tasks
  • Important to match personality type with position to avoid stress
consequences of distress
Consequences of Distress
  • Physiological consequences
    • 50%-75% of all illnesses
    • Lower for women
    • cardiovascular diseases
    • ulcers, sexual dysfunction, headaches
  • Behavioral consequences
    • work performance, accidents, decisions
    • absenteeism -- due to sickness and flight
    • workplace aggression
  • Psychological Consequences
    • moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue
coping with stress
Coping with STRESS
  • Individual Coping Strategies
    • Problem focused- solve the problem, don’t procrastinate
    • Time management- self-management
      • scheduling, rewards, punishments
    • Seeking Help
      • mentoring- process of senior performer coaching a junior one
    • Change jobs
coping
Coping....
  • Emotion-focused
    • Relaxation
      • meditation
      • napping
    • Exercise
    • Psychological
      • Employee Assistance Programs
    • Recreation
    • Companionship
family friendly and work life initiatives
Family-Friendly and Work/Life Initiatives
  • Flexible work time
  • Job sharing
  • Telecommuting
  • Personal leave
  • Childcare facilities
other stress management practices
Other Stress Management Practices
  • Withdrawing from the stressor
    • person-job matching
    • work breaks, stabilization zones, sabbaticals
  • Changing stress perceptions
    • self-efficacy, self-leadership
  • Controlling stress consequences
    • relaxation and meditation
    • fitness and lifestyle programs
  • Social support
    • emotional and informational
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