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5. C H A P T E R. Stress Management. F I V E. What is Stress?. An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being Stressors- an environmental condition or stimuli that places physical or emotional demand on a person

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Stress management l.jpg

5

C H A P T E R

StressManagement

F I V E


What is stress l.jpg

What is Stress?

  • An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being

  • Stressors- an environmental condition or stimuli that places physical or emotional demand on a person

  • Examples

    • Physical

    • Emotional


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Types of stress

  • Episodic Stress- pattern of high stress followed by intervals of relief

  • Chronic Stress- constant confrontation of stressors without relief

    • Effects are:

      • constant

      • additive

  • Distress- stress that has a negative consequence on a person’s well-being


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General Adaptation Syndrome

  • Automatic defense system to help cope with with environmental demands

  • Three stages of adaptation

    • Alarm reaction- perception of stressor

    • Resistance- ability to cope rises above normal because of activated defense mechanisms such as adrenaline

    • Exhaustion- body must rest and recover from heightened resistance stage

  • Prolonged resistance leads to system breakdown


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General Adaptation Syndrome

Stage 1

Alarm Reaction

Stage 2

Resistance

Stage 3

Exhaustion

DANGER ZONE

Normal

Level of

Resistance


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Individual

Differences

Consequences

of Stress

Physiological

Behavioral

Psychological

Stress

over time

Nonwork

Stressors

Stressors and Stress Outcomes

Work

Stressors

Physical

environment

Role-related

Interpersonal

Organizational


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Role-Related Stressors

  • Role conflict

    • interrole conflict

    • intrarole conflict

    • person-role conflict

  • Role ambiguity

    • uncertain duties, authority

  • Role overload/underload

  • Task characteristics

    • decisions, monitoring, traffic problems


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Stress Research

  • Type A and complexity leads to cardiovascular problems

  • Job Control, Job Complexity, Self-Efficacy interact to influence blood pressure

  • Burnout as a process

  • Emotional Exhaustion - lack of energy and a feeling that one’s emotional resources are used up

  • Coping Strategy for emotional buffer

  • Sense of inadequacy


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Emotional

Exhaustion

Physiological,

psychological,

and behavioral

consequences

Depersonalization

Reduced Personal

Accomplishment

Job Burnout Process

Interpersonal and

Role-Related Stressors


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Antecedents

  • Job Characteristics - client interactions, overload, ambiguity, conflict

  • Organizational Characteristics - reward and punishment systems, job context (shift, psych environment, etc.)

  • Personal Characteristics - Age, Social Support, Marriage, Expectations, Career progress


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Consequences

  • Attitudinal

  • Behavioral

  • Interpersonal


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Social Support and Undermining

  • Social Support- interpersonal transactions with others that provide either emotional or informational support

    • reduces effects of stress

      • feel valued

      • feel capable of handling a situation

      • buffers effects, someone to talk to, etc.

  • Social Undermining


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Cognitive Dissonance Theory

  • Leon Festinger 1967

  • Three aspects of attitudes must follow each other

    • cognitive aspect- knowledge about an object

    • affective aspect- liking of the object

    • behavioral aspect- behavior toward the object

  • If dissonance is present there is stress and a need to change an aspect of the attitude to produce agreement among the elements


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Changing Aspects of Attitudes

  • Affected by level of control

    • “can I control the aspects of my attitude?”

    • “Do I have a choice regarding performance of the behavior?”

  • Behaviors are set by habit and view of others

  • Ignore current knowledge

  • Seek knew knowledge

  • Alter beliefs

  • Hypocrasy effects level of dissonance


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Emotional Labor

  • Experiencing dissonance as a part of an individual’s role

  • Presenting a friendly attitude while holding a negative attitude

  • Mainly in service positions where employees must always be “happy”

    • flight attendants

    • secretaries

  • Backstage areas

    • out of sight of customer


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Interpersonal Stressor: Sexual Harassment

  • Unwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on work environment or job performance

  • Quid pro quo

    • employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relations

  • Hostile work environment

    • an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment


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Interpersonal Stressor: Workplace Violence

  • 2 million people experience some form of violence at work each year

  • Most common cause of work-related death for women; second most common for men

  • Severe distress after experiencing or observing violence

  • Also stress from working in high-risk jobs


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Work-Family Stressors

  • Time-based conflict

    • due to work schedule, commuting, travel

    • for women -- still do most household chores

  • Strain-based conflict

    • work stress affects home, and vice versa

  • Role behavior conflict

    • incompatible work and family roles


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Top 10 Life Stressors

10. Retirement or quitting

9. Marital reconciliation

8. Fired from work

7. Marriage

6. Personal injury or illness

5. Death of a family member

4. Jail Term

3. Marital Separation

2. Divorce

1. Death


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Stress and Occupations

Accountant

Artist

Auto Mechanic

Forester

Hospital manager

Physician (GP)

Psychologist

School principal

Police officer

911 operator

U.S. president

Waiter/waitress

Low-Stress

Occupations

Medium-Stress

Occupations

High-Stress

Occupations


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Individual Differences in Stress

  • Perceive the situation differently

  • Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor

  • Use different stress coping strategies

  • Personality Type


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Personality Type

  • Type A- impatient, restless, competitive, aggressive, under intense perceived time pressure, always attempting to accomplish several things at once

    • need job and career control

    • have more health problems and shorter careers

  • Type B- does not feel pressure, works slowly and enjoyably on a variety of tasks

  • Important to match personality type with position to avoid stress


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Consequences of Distress

  • Physiological consequences

    • 50%-75% of all illnesses

    • Lower for women

    • cardiovascular diseases

    • ulcers, sexual dysfunction, headaches

  • Behavioral consequences

    • work performance, accidents, decisions

    • absenteeism -- due to sickness and flight

    • workplace aggression

  • Psychological Consequences

    • moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue


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Coping with STRESS

  • Individual Coping Strategies

    • Problem focused- solve the problem, don’t procrastinate

    • Time management- self-management

      • scheduling, rewards, punishments

    • Seeking Help

      • mentoring- process of senior performer coaching a junior one

    • Change jobs


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Coping....

  • Emotion-focused

    • Relaxation

      • meditation

      • napping

    • Exercise

    • Psychological

      • Employee Assistance Programs

    • Recreation

    • Companionship


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Family-Friendly and Work/Life Initiatives

  • Flexible work time

  • Job sharing

  • Telecommuting

  • Personal leave

  • Childcare facilities


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Other Stress Management Practices

  • Withdrawing from the stressor

    • person-job matching

    • work breaks, stabilization zones, sabbaticals

  • Changing stress perceptions

    • self-efficacy, self-leadership

  • Controlling stress consequences

    • relaxation and meditation

    • fitness and lifestyle programs

  • Social support

    • emotional and informational


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