Chemistry Survival Guide
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Chemistry Survival Guide. A Visual Guide to Understanding Chemistry. Table of Contents. Intro to Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Atomic Structure. Gas Laws. Periodic Table. Thermochemistry. Compounds. Solutions. Quantitative Chemistry. Acids & Bases. “Chemistry in the Real World”.

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Chemistry Survival Guide

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Chemistry Survival Guide

A Visual Guide to Understanding Chemistry


Table of Contents

Intro to Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry

Atomic Structure

Gas Laws

Periodic Table

Thermochemistry

Compounds

Solutions

Quantitative Chemistry

Acids & Bases

“Chemistry in the Real World”


Rationale

The science community* has increasingly identified the content focus and the instructional practices as the two areas most in need of change (McCleery & Tindal, 1999).

*(National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the National Science Foundation Education Association)


Methods of Instruction

Explicit Instruction

Teaching in Small Steps

Guiding Students During Initial Practice

Providing High Levels of Successful Practice

Rule-Based Approach

Focusing the Content

Sequencing Activities

Minimizing Learner Demands


Principles of Universal Design

Flexible Curricula

Multiple Representations of Presented Information

Multiple Means of Expression and Control

Multiple Means of Motivating and Engaging Students

(Orkwis, 1999)


Curriculum Models

Intensified:

Hands-On

Theme-Based:

Long Term Activities

Interrelationships Among Unifying Processes

(Cawley, Foley, & Miller, 2003)


Introduction to Chemistry

Classifying Matter

Calculating Density

Accuracy & Precision

Calculating Percent Error

Metric System & UnitConversion

Scientific Notation

Physical vs. Chemical Properties

Pure Substances Mixtures & Compounds


Classification of Matter

Matter

Mixture

Substance

Element

Compound

Hetero geneous

Homo geneous


Classification of Matter


Calculating Density

DENSITY: A physical property of matter, measured in:

grams, or g/ml or g/cm3

D = M/V Density = Mass divided by Volume

(g or g/ml or g/cm3)

M = D  V Mass = Density times Volume (in grams)

V = M/D Volume = Mass divided by Density ( in ml, l, cm3)

V = LWH Volume = Length times Width times Height (cm3)

M

D

V


Calculating Density

M

D

V

Density = Mass / Volume


Calculating Density

M

D

V

Mass = Density x Volume


Calculating Density

M

D

V

Volume = Mass / Density


Accuracy & Precision

Accuracy = How close a measured value is to the true or accepted value.

Precision = How close together a group of measurements actually are to each other.


Inaccurate & Imprecise


Inaccurate & Precise


Accurate & Precise


Calculating Percent Error

( Accepted Value - Measured Value = Error)

1.0 - .98 =

.02

(Error / Accepted Value x 100% = % Error)

.02/1.0 = .02 x 100 =

2%


Metric System & Unit Conversion


Metric System & Unit Conversion


Scientific Notation

6028

006

.

.


Physical vs. Chemical Properties


Physical Changes

Chemical Changes


Pure Substances, Mixtures & Compounds


Atomic Structure

Atomic Scientists

Atomic Structure

Orbital Filling Diagram


Atomic Scientists

John Dalton

Atoms are indestructible, indivisible, and identical.

Combine in simple ratios called the Law of Definite Proportions.

Atoms are not created or destroyed during a reaction.

JJ Thomson

Cathode Ray tube experiment

Plum Pudding model

Opposite charged particles (electrons) attract


Atomic Scientists

Ernest Rutherford

Alpha Particles and Gold Foil experiment

Atoms are mostly “empty space”

Nucleus is small but has almost all of atom’s mass

Niels Bohr

Planetary model

Electrons occupy specific orbits around the nucleus


Atomic Structure


Atomic Structure

ATOMIC NUMBER

8

ELEMENT SYMBOL

O

MASS NUMBER

15.999

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION

1S22S22P4


Orbital Filling Diagram

ALUMINUM Z=13 1S2 2S2 2P6 3S2 3P1

3P1

3S2

2P6

2S2

1S2


Periodic Table

Protons, Electrons & Neutrons

Periodic Table of the Elements

Periods & Groups

Blocks

Trends

Ions


Periodic Table

Atomic Number = Number of Protons

Number of Protons = Number of Electrons

Mass Number – Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons

# of P’s = # of E’s

Mass # - Atomic # = # of N’s


Periodic Table


Periodic Table

Arranged horizontally in PERIODS

Arranged vertically in GROUPS


Periodic Table

Arranged in BLOCKS (S, D, P, F)

D

P

S

F


Periodic Trends

Atomic Radius &

Metallic Character

Ionization Energy

&

Electronegativity

DECREASES ACROSS A PERIOD

INCREASES ACROSS A PERIOD

INCREASES DOWN A GROUP

DECREASES DOWN A GROUP


Ions

1+

2+

3+

3-

2-

1-

Group 13

Group 15

Group 16

Group 17

Group 1

Group 2


Compounds

Binary Ionic Compounds

Bonding

Writing Formulas

Lewis Dot Structures


Compounds

IONIC COMPOUNDS:

Any chemical compound that is composed of oppositely charged ions

NAMING BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS:

The name of the CATION followed by

The name of the ANION + IDE


Compounds

NAMING BINARY COMPOUNDS OF TWO NONMETALS (Given formula, write name)

Do Not use the prefix “mono” for the 1st element

Use the prefixes (1-10) and end in IDE

N2O = Dinitrogen Monoxide NO2 = Nitrogen Dioxide


Bonding

BONDING

IONIC

MOLECULAR COVALENT BOND

Metal & Non-Metal

Non – Metal & Non-Metal

1, Name the 1st element1. Do not use Roman Numerals

2. Make the 2nd element = IDE2. Use Prefixes ( Mono, Di, Tri)

3. Use Roman Numerals ( I, II, III)3. 2nd element ALWAYS has

if Transition Element (3-12) PREFIX & IDE

4. Reduce to lowest terms 4. Do Not Reduce


Comparing Bond Types


Bonding

e

Sodium Nitride

e

e

e

e

Na

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

Na

e

N

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

Na

Na3N

e

e

e

e

e

e


Writing Formulas

Formulas are created by the “CROSS-OVER” Method

Sodium (Na) & Nitrogen (N)

-

+

N

Na

3

Na3N

Sodium Nitride =


Writing Formulas

Transition Metals Groups (3-12) & The Ions They Form

Cation

Anion

Iron = Fe3+

Chlorine = Cl -

-

+

3

Fe

Cl

Fe Cl3

Iron (III) Chloride =


Transition Metals

Lead (Pb) & Flourine (F)

-

2

+

Pb

F

Lead (II) Fluoride =

Pb F2


Lewis Dot Structures

O

H

H

Oxygen has 6 valence electrons

Hydrogen has 1 valence electron

Hydrogen has 1 valence electron

8 electrons in the valence shell is stable

Obey the Octet Rule


Lewis Dot Structures

H2O

H

H

O

Dihydrogen Monoxide =


Quantitative Chemistry ( Moles! )

Moles & the Mole Concept

Stoichiometry

Percent (%) Composition

Molecular & Empirical Formulas

Balancing Chemical Equations

Types of Reactions


Quantitative Chemistry ( Moles! )

Moles & #’s of Particles

Multiply by 6.02 x 1023

Moles

# of

Atoms Particles Molecules

Divide by 6.02 x 1023


Quantitative Chemistry ( Moles! )

Moles & Grams

Multiply by Molar Mass*

* From Atomic Mass on Periodic Table

Moles

Grams

Divide by Molar Mass


The Mole Concept

Moles

# of Particles, Atoms, Molecules

Use Avogadro’s # 6.02 x 1023

Moles

Grams

Use Molar Mass from Periodic Table

General Plan for Converting

Mass, Amount & # of Particles


Stoichiometry

Using Equations to make a recipe for a Ham & Cheese Sandwich

=

+

+

+

2 slices Bread + 2 slices Ham + 1 slice cheese + 1 leaf Lettuce =

1 Ham & Cheese Sandwich

A ratio of : 2 : 2 : 1 : 1

Balanced Equation

In order to feed 20 people Ham & Cheese Sandwiches you need ?

40 slices Bread 40 slices Ham 20 slices Cheese 20 leaves Lettuce


Stoichiometry

Making a sandwich is analogous to a chemical reaction

=

+

+

+

2Bd (s) + 2Hm (s) + 1Ch (s) + 1Lt (s)

Bd2 Hm2ChLt (s)

Bread + Ham + Cheese + Lettuce

Sandwich

Reactants

Product


Stoichiometry

A “Recipe” that calls for: a ratio of specific ingredients

Mass to Mass

Moles to Moles


Percent ( % ) Composition

Molar Mass of Element

%

X

100

=

Total Molar Mass

H2O

Mass of H2 = 2 + Mass of O = 16 …….. Total Molar Mass = 18

2/18 = .111 x 100 = 11.1 % H

16/18 = .888 x 100 = 88.8 % O


Molecular & Empirical Formulas


Balancing Chemical Equations

REACTANTS

PRODUCTS

?

?

?

+

C3H4

O2

CO2

+

H2O

+

3

CO2

2

H2O

4

C3H4

+

O2


Types of Reactions

A

+

B

C

=

Combination/Synthesis

A

+

O2

AO

=

Combustion

A

CO2

+

H2O

=

Decomposition

+

AC

+

B

=

Single Replacement

A

BC

Double Replacement

+

BC

=

AD

AB

+

CD


Types of Reactions

CO2

Extinguishes Flame

H2

Causes Explosion

O2

Reignites Flame


Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear Particles

Types of Decay

Radioactive Half-Life


Nuclear Particles

He

e

γ

n

n

e


Nuclear Particles

Alpha Decay

+ 4

+ 2

=

=

Sum of the Mass # = Sum of the Mass #

He

Beta Decay

=

0

-1

e

=

On right side, increase Atomic # by 1 Mass # remains the same

Electron Capture

On left side, Mass # is same Atomic # decreases by 1

0

-1

e

=

=

Positron Emission

0

+1

=

e

=

On right side, Mass # is same Atomic # decreases by 1


Nuclear Particles

He

e

e

e


Radioactive Half-Life

Half–Life = Amount of time it takes for ½ of material to decay

12.5% or 1/8

6.25% or 1/16

50% or 1/2

25% or 1/4

Half–Life is a constant value unaffected by external conditions


Gas Laws

Standard Conditions

Pressure Conversions

Gas Laws

Boyle’s Law

Charles’s Law

Gay-Lussac’s Law

Combined Gas Law

Ideal Gas Law


Standard Conditions


Pressure Conversions

X 101.325

X 760

kPa

101.325

atm

1.00

mmHg

760

÷ 101.325

÷ 760


Gas Laws

Pressure, Volume, & Temperature

P1 × V1 = P2 × V2

(PV = K)

Boyle’s Law =

(Inverse)

V1 V2

Charles’s Law =

(VK )

=

=

T

(Direct)

T1 T2

P1 P2

Gay-Lussac’s Law (Direct)

(PK )

=

=

=

T

T1 T2

Avogadro’s Law

V1 V2

(V/n = K)

=

=

n1 n2

Dalton’s Law Partial Pressure

=

P1 + P2 + P3 + Pn = P Total


Boyle's Law

When Pressure increases

Then Volume decreases

P

V

P2 V2

P2 V2

P1

=

V1

=

V1

P1

P1 V1

P1V1

P2

=

V2

=

V2

P2


Charles's Law

When Volume Increases

Then Temperature Increases

V

T

V2 T1

V1 T2

V1

=

V2

=

T2

T1

V1 T2

V2 T1

T1

=

T2

=

V2

V1


Gay-Lussac's Law

When Pressure Increases

Then Temperature Increases

P

T

P2 T1

P1 T2

P1

=

P2

=

T2

P1

P1 T2

P2 T1

T1

=

T2

=

P2

P1


Combined Gas Laws

&

Peas (P) & Vegetables (V) on the Table (T)

P1 V1

P2 V2

=

T1

T2


The Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT

P = the pressure of a sample of gas

V = the volume of a sample of gas

n = the number of moles of a gas present

T = the Kelvin temperature of the gas

R = the ideal gas constant, which combines

standard conditions & molar volume into a single constant


Thermochemistry

Thermochemistry

Thermochemical Formulas

Phase Changes

Energy

Thermochemical Equations


Thermochemistry

Specific Heat Capacity

The amount of heat energy to raise temperature

( a quantity of energy ) = “ Joules”

q = Specific Heat Capacity in joules

m = Mass in grams or moles

∆T = Change in temperature

*

Ifthe problem involves mass (m) then use specific heat capacity. If the problem involves the # of moles (n) then use the molar heat capacity


Thermochemical Formulas

q = Cp (m) (∆T)

or

q = Cp (n) (∆T)

&

q

q

m

=

(∆T)

=

Cp (∆T)

Cp (m)


Phase Changes

Steam

Gas

Condensation

1000

Vaporization

Water

Temperature (0C)

Liquid

Freezing

00

Fusion

Ice

Solid

Time


Energy - "The Capacity to do Work"

All forms of energy can be divided into two categories

Kinetic Energy (KE) =

Energy of Motion

Result of the Attractions & Repulsion between objects

Potential Energy (PE) =

KE

Energy in Action

Energy of Motion

PE

Stored Energy

Energy of Position


Potential & Kinetic Energy

PE =

Gas

KE +

PE +

KE =

1000

Vaporization

PE =KE +

Temperature (0C)

Liquid

PE +KE =

00

Fusion

PE =

Solid

KE +


Thermochemical Equations


Endothermic Reactions

Final enthalpy

Products

Heat absorbed

∆ H (positive)

H

Reactants

Initial enthalpy


Exothermic Reactions

Reactants

Initial enthalpy

Heat Released (lost)

∆ H (negative)

H

Products

Final enthalpy


Solutions

Solutions

Concentration

Molarity

Dilution


Solutions


Concentration

mol

# of moles of solute

(M) Molarity

=

or

# of liters of solution

Liters

mol

# of Liters

=

M

# of moles

=

(M) ( # of Liters)

Mass of a Solute

=

M x L = mol x molar mass = Mass in (g)


Molarity

Divide by # of grams from Molar Mass on Periodic Table

mol

Divide by 1000 to convert ML to L

M

L

Molarity

Liters


Molarity

(x) Multiply by molar mass

moles

grams

(÷) Divide by molar mass

# of ml (÷)1000

ML

Liters

# of ml (x)1000


Dilution

M = Molarity

V = Volume

Molarity1 x Volume1 = moles solute = Molarity2 x Volume2

M1 x V1 = M2 x V2

M2V2

M2V2

M1

=

V1

=

V1

M1

M1V1

M1V1

M2

=

V2

=

V2

M2


Acids & Bases

Naming Acids & Bases

pH

Titration


Naming Acids & Bases

*

Using Polyatomic Ions & convert the suffix

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4

ATE

IC

=

=

H2SO3

Sulfurous Acid

Ous

ITE

=

=


Naming Acids & Bases


pH = Power of Hydrogen

pH = Negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration

pH = -LOG(H+)


Titration

Concentration of Acid (H+) = Concentration of Base (OH)

MA x VA = MB x VB

MA = Molarity of the Acid

VA = Volume of the Acid

MB = Molarity of the Base

VB = Volume of the Base

MBVB

MBVB

MA

=

VA

=

VA

MA

MAVA

MAVA

MB

=

VB

=

VB

MB


Chemistry in the Real World

Cosmetics

Chemical Warfare

Forensic Science

Food Additives & Preservatives

Global Warming

Heavy Metal Poisons


References

Cawley, J.F., Foley, T.E., & Miller, J. (2003) Science and Students with Mild Disabilities: Principles of Universal Design. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38, 3, 160-171.

Holt ChemFile. Mini-Guide to Problem Solving.Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Austin: Texas.

Mascetta, J.A., (1996) Chemistry the Easy Way. Barrons Educational Services. Hauppauge:New York

McCleery, J.A., & Tindal G.A. (1999) Teaching the Scientific Method to At-Risk Students and Students with Learning Disabilities Through Concept Anchoring and Explicit Instruction. Remedial And Special Education, 20, 1, 7-18.

Orkwis, R. (1999) Curriculum Access and Universal Design, Reston,VA: Council for Exceptional Children


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